Key Evidence:A study from South Africa shows that reduction in birth rate (fertility) can yield certain socioeconomic benefits. These include 1) a decrease in ratio of economically dependent people 2) increased per capita labor force and 3) increased savings. These savings can be invested in physical human capital which aids in economic growth. As average family sizes decrease, parents are likely to invest more on their child’s health and education. This in turn offers potential benefits to long term productivity in adulthood.