Key Concept

Key Evidence: An analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults found that women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages.

Nandi, A., Kumar, S., Shet, A., Bloom, D. E., & Laxminarayan, R. 2020. Childhood vaccinations and adult schooling attainment: Long-term evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Programme. Social Science & Medicine. 250.
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Key Evidence: For every 6 children vaccinated against measles in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

Anekwe, T.D., Newell, M., Tanser, F., et al 2015. The causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: A mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa. Vaccine. 33(38).
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Key Evidence: In 1996, a follow-up study was conducted on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

Canning, D., Razzaque, A., Driessen, J., et al 2011. The effect of maternal tetanus immunization on children’s schooling attainment in Matlab, Bangladesh: Follow-up of a randomized trial. Social Science and Medicine. 72(9).
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