Key Concept

Key Evidence: A study found that children of poor labor migrants living in Delhi, India are much less likely to be fully vaccinated than the general population and thus are at greater risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. Only 31% – 53% of children from migrant families were fully immunized (against 7 diseases) by 12 months of age, compared to 72% in the overall population of Delhi — with recent migrants having the lowest rates. There is therefore a need to focus on the delivery of health services to migrants.

Kusuma YS, Kaushal S, Sundari AB, et al. 2018. Access to childhood immunization services and its determinants among recent and settled migrants in Delhi, India. Public Health. 158.
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Key Evidence: 69% of children under five with severe acute respiratory infections (ARI) from families recently relocated to urban Bangladesh visited a qualified medical provider as compared to 82% of children from households that have lived there for at least two years. After adjusting for wealth and other socioeconomic factors, recent migrants were still 11% less likely to seek treatment for ARI from qualified providers than longer-term residents, indicating the need for targeted efforts aimed towards children in high turnover communities and to link these households with existing health services.

Horng L, Kakoly NS, Abedin J, et al. 2019. Effect of household relocation on child vaccination and health service utilisation in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a cross-sectional community survey. BMJ Open. 9.
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Key Evidence: Less than half of foreign-born children in New Zealand had immunization records in the National Immunization Register (compared to 95-96% of New Zealand-born children of migrant or non-migrant mothers), and those with records had considerably lower age-appropriate vaccination rates than locally-born children (e.g., 69% for MMR vs. 82-83% for locally-born and 53% for pertussis vs. 78-81%), with refugee children having especially low rates. These findings point to challenges in recording vaccinations given overseas and in reaching migrant children with immunization services, as well as the importance of monitoring vaccination coverage by migrant and refugee background.

Charania NA, Paynter J, Lee AC et al 2018. Exploring immunisation inequities among migrants and refugee children in New Zealand. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics. 14.
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Key Evidence: According to a systematic review and meta-analysis, children who are rural-urban migrants in China, India and Nigeria were less likely to be fully-immunized by the age of one year than non-migrant urban residents and the general population. These inequities in vaccination rates — often concealed in national averages — call for special efforts to improve immunization rates in this rapidly growing sub-population to reduce both health inequities and the risk of infectious disease outbreaks in the wider society.

Awoh AB, Plugge E 2016. Immunisation coverage in rural-urban migrant children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 70(3).
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