Key Concept

Key Evidence: A two-dose schedule of rotavirus vaccine was estimated to be cost-effective in Somalia, where more than 20 years of civil conflict have significantly damaged the health system and vaccine coverage is exceedingly low. Researchers estimate that in 2012, routine use of rotavirus vaccine, even at low coverage rates, would have averted nearly 25% of deaths due to rotavirus diarrhea in Somali children under one year of age.

Gargano, L. M., Tate, J. E., Parashar, U. D., et al. 2015. Comparison of impact and cost-effectiveness of rotavirus supplementary and routine immunization in a complex humanitarian emergency, Somali case study.. Conflict and health. 9(5).
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Key Evidence: Adding a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine to routine immunization of refugees in Africa — who have particularly high infection rates — is a highly cost-effective means of reducing transmission of the infection thus strengthening the overall global health security among these mobile, vulnerable populations.

Reardon JM, O'Connor SM, Njau JD et al. 2019. Cost-effectiveness of birth-dose hepatitis B vaccination among refugee populations in the African region: a series of case studies. Conflict and Health. 13(5).
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Key Evidence: Children under 5 years of age bear the greatest burden of indirect conflict-associated mortality (indirect mortality results from disruption of health services including immunization, food insecurity, and high risk living conditions such as those found in refugee camps). The leading causes of child death in these circumstances include respiratory infections, diarrhea, measles, malaria, and malnutrition.

Kadir, A., Shenoda, S., Goldhagen, J., et al. 2018. The Effects of Armed Conflict on Children. Pediatrics. 142(6).
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Key Evidence: Respiratory infections and diarrhea are the leading causes of death during humanitarian emergencies according to a 2016 review of vaccine-preventable diseases and the use of immunizations during complex humanitarian emergencies.

Close, R.M., Pearson, C., Cohn J. 2016. Vaccine-preventable disease and the under-utilization of immunizations in complex humanitarian emergencies.. Vaccine. 34(39).
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