Key Concept

Key Evidence: Although the upfront investment in preparedness is costly – severe influenza pandemic preparedness is US$4.5bn a year – the estimated annual economic benefits would total US$60bn and US$490bn through averted deaths. “Even if only one tenth of these benefits were to materialize, the returns to public investment in preparedness would still be extraordinarily high.”

Jonas, O., Katz, R., Yansen, S., et al. 2018. Call for independent monitoring of disease outbreak preparedness. BMJ. 361.
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