Key Evidence: An analysis of under-5 mortality rates (U5MR) in India’s 35 states and union territories and 640 districts was conducted in order to estimate excess female mortality. When comparing India’s census data to data from 46 countries without gender bias, researchers found that more than 90% of districts had excess female mortality. The four largest states in northern India accounted for two-thirds of India’s total number. In more than 10% of northern Indian districts, excess U5MR exceeded 30 per 1000 live births, showing that geography is also a key factor in infant and child death among girls. Low economic development, gender inequity, and high fertility were the main predictors of excess female mortality.