VoICE Immunization Evidence: Gender Inequity
In general, low- and middle-income countries with high levels of gender inequality have lower levels of immunization coverage
Key Evidence: An ecological study designed to investigate the association between child mortality rates and gender inequality using the United Nations Development Programme’s Gender Inequality Index (GII), showed that low- and middle-income countries have significantly higher gender inequality and under-5 mortality rates than high-income countries. Greater gender inequality was significantly correlated with lower immunization coverage and higher neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality.
Brinda, E.M., Rajkumar, A. P., Enemark, U. 2015. Association between gender inequality and index and child mortality rates: a cross-national study of 138 countries.. BMC Public Health. 15(97).
Key Evidence: To better understand the drivers of vaccination coverage and equity, a 2017 study examined the country-level factors influencing vaccination coverage in 45 low- and lower-middle income Gavi-supported nations. Countries with the least gender equality – as measured by reproductive health, women-held parliamentary seats, educational attainment, and other factors – also had lower rates of vaccine coverage.
Arsenault, C., Johri, M., Nandi, A., et al. 2017. Country-level predictors of vaccination coverage and inequalities in Gavi-supported countries.. Vaccine. 35(18):2479-2488.