VoICE Immunization Evidence: Sociocultural Inequity
Key Evidence: Children of unemployed mothers in Bangladesh were 1.5 times as likely to have incomplete vaccination status compared to children of employed mothers. Maternal unemployment was also significantly linked to delays in BCG and measles vaccinations.
Sheikh, N., Sultana, M., Ali, N., et al. 2018. Coverage, Timelines, and Determinants of Incomplete Immunization in Bangladesh. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 3(72).
Key Evidence: The 2008 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggest that children in communities with high unemployment were 1/3 as likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with a medium level of unemployment.
Antai, D. 2012. Gender inequalities, relationship power, and childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a population-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Infectious Disease. 16(2).
Key Evidence: Children of divorced mothers were three times less likely to be fully immunized than mothers cohabitating with a partner. In addition, it was found that children of mothers who work part time were approximately 2.3 times less likely to be fully immunized than mothers who work full time.
From the VoICE Editors: This study, conducted in Ghana, used Chi-Squared analysis to determine adjusted odds ratios. Multivariable analysis was not conducted.
Anokye, R., Acheampong, E., Budu-Ainooson, A., et al. 2018. Socio-demographic determinants of childhood immunization incompletion in Koforidua, Ghana. BMC Reserach Notes. 11:656.