Key Concept

Key Evidence: In a US-based study of more than 65,000 longterm survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers spanning nearly three decades, researchers found an increased risk of later HPV infections and malignancies among these survivors. Female survivors of childhood and young adult cancers were found to have a 40% greater chance of developing HPV-associated malignancies compared to cancer-naïve females. This risk was even greater in male cancer survivors who had a 150% relative excess of HPV malignancies compared to cancer-naive males.

Ojha, R.P., Tota, J.E., Offutt-Powell, T.N., et al. 2013. Human papillomavirus-associated subsequent malignancies among long-term survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers. PLOS ONE. 8(8).
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Key Evidence: A study in the US found that the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease was 22 to 38 times higher in adults with cancer than in healthy adults.

Kyaw, M.H., Rose, C.E., Fry, A.M., et al 2005. The Influence of Chronic Illnesses on the Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Adults. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 192(3).
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