VoICE Immunization Evidence: Growth, Development, and Nutrition
Repeated episodes of diarrhea during infancy and early childhood increases the risk of altered long-term growth and development
Key Evidence: A pooled analysis of nine studies assessing the effects of diarrhea on stunting prior to the age of 24 months showed that the odds of stunting were significantly increased with each diarrheal episode. Each day of diarrhea prior to attaining 24 months of age also contributed to the risk of stunting. For each five episodes of diarrhea, the odds of stunting increased by 13%. In addition, once a child becomes stunted, only 6% of those stunted at 6 months of age recovered by 24 months of age.
Checkley, W., Buckley, G., Gilman, R.H., et al. 2008. Multi-country analysis of the effects of diarrhoea on childhood stunting. International Journal of Epidemiology. 37(4).
Key Evidence: A review of gut infections and effects on physical growth and development found that for children living in impoverished areas of the world, episodes of diarrhea during the first two years of life not only negatively affected their physical growth, but could result in a 10 points lower IQ than average by age 7.
Guerrant RL, DeBoer MD, Moore SL, et al. 2014. The impoverished gut—a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology. 10(4).