VoICE Immunization Evidence: Cognition

Key Concept

Key Evidence: The risk of mortality from tetanus is high for mothers and their newborns, and up to 50% of children who do survive neonatal tetanus may have long-term cognitive impairment, according to a 2007 review.

Roper MH, Vandelaer JH, Gasse FL 2007. Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus. Lancet. 370(9603).

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Key Evidence: In The Gambia, 58% of children who survived pneumococcal meningitis had long lasting negative health outcomes. Half had major disabilities such as mental retardation, hearing loss, motor abnormalities, and seizures.

Goetghebuer, T., West, T.E., Wermenbol, V., et al 2000. Outcome of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 5(3):207-13.

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Key Evidence: In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, it was found that 25% of children who survived pneumococcal or Hib meningitis had neuropsychological deficits.

Ramakrishnan, M., Ulland, A.J., Steinhardt, L.C., et al 2009. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review. BMC Medicine. 7:47.

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