VoICE Immunization Evidence: Antibiotic Resistance
Use of vaccines decreases the need to use antibiotics to treat disease, thus reducing the opportunity for the development of antimicrobial resistance.
Key Evidence: Evaluation of the ability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine to reduce the occurrence of respiratory infections and the resultant antibiotic drug use was conducted among day care attendees in Israel. It was observed that children who had received the 9-valent conjugate vaccine showed a 17% overall reduction in antibiotic usage. In particular, a 10% reduction in days of antibiotic usage for upper respiratory tract infections, 47% fewer days of antibiotic usage for lower respiratory tract infections, and 20% fewer days of antibiotic usage for otitis media (ear infections) when compared to children who did not receive PCV.
Dagan, R., Sikuler-Cohen, M., Zamir, O., et al 2001. Effect of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on the occurrence of respiratory infections and antibiotic use in day-care center attendees. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 20(10):951-8.
Key Evidence: Several studies have shown a 13-50% reduction in the use of antibiotics by children who have received influenza vaccine compared with unvaccinated controls. This is due to a decline in febrile illnesses causes by influenza — for which antibiotics are often prescribed inappropriately — as well as a decline in secondary bacterial infections requiring antibiotic treatment, such as pneumonia and middle ear infections, that are triggered by influenza.
Klugman KP, Black S 2018. Impact of existing vaccines in reducing antibiotic resistance: primary and secondary effects. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 115(51).
Key Evidence: In a study evaluating the impact of PCV7 on 40,000 recipients and control subjects in northern California revealed that the vaccine could significantly decrease the need for antibiotics to treat the disease. The children who had received the vaccine displayed a 5.4% reduction in the number of antibiotic prescriptions and a 12.6% reduction in the use of “second-line antibiotics” compared to the controls. Additionally, when looking at children in the time period between their first dose and attainment of the age of 3.5 years, receiving the vaccine had prevented 35 antibiotic prescriptions per 100 fully vaccinated children.
Fireman, B., Black, S.B., Shinefield, H.R., et al 2003. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on otitis media. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 22(1):10-6.
Key Evidence: In Iceland, a study of all children born over an 11-year period, before and after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) into the national immunization program, found a 6% decrease in all antibiotic prescriptions for children during their first four years of life and a 22% reduction in prescriptions for otitis media after the vaccine was introduced. Thus, in addition to reducing the burden of pneumococcal disease, PCV may also slow the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Eythorsson E, Sigurdsson S, Hrafnkelsson B 2018. Impact of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on antimicrobial prescriptions in young children: a whole population study. BMC Infectious Disease. 18:505.
Key Evidence: Vaccines against influenza reduce the use of antibiotics that drive drug resistance in bacteria in two ways. First, they prevent secondary bacterial infections caused by influenza, such as pneumonia and otitis media; in Ontario, Canada, the rate of prescribing for influenza-associated antibiotics declined around 64% after universal introduction of influenza vaccination compared to other Canadian provinces with more limited use of the vaccine. Second, they help prevent inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions for respiratory tract infections caused by influenza and other viruses, which account for half of all respiratory illnesses for which antibiotics are prescribed in the U.S.
Jansen KU, Knirsch C, Anderson AS 2018. The role of vaccines in preventing bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Nature Medicine. 24.