Key Concept

Key Evidence: A modeled analysis of the potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in India estimated that the greatest reductions in deaths due to PCV vaccination would be among the poorest segments of the population. Assuming a vaccination coverage rate of 77% (the current DTP3 coverage rate), PCV would prevent nearly 2.5 times as many deaths per 100,000 children under five in the 2 poorest income quintiles than in the 2 wealthiest groups (313 vs. 134), and nearly 3 times as many deaths per 100,000 if coverage reaches 90% (446 vs. 167).

From the VoICE Editors: The model used was specific to the epidemiology, health system situation, and population characteristics of India. 

Megiddo K, Klein E, Laxminarayan R 2018. Potential impact of introducing the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into national immunisation programmes: an economic epidemiological analysis using data from India. BMJ Global Health. 3(3).
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Key Evidence: Models based on demographic data from Ghana suggest that immunization would eliminate the childhood mortality risk associated with living in poverty and greatly diminish the increased risk of mortality borne by children whose parents have low levels of education.

Bawah, A.A., Phillips, J.F., Adjuik, M., et al 2010. The impact of immunization on the association between poverty and child survival: Evidence from Kassena-Nankana district of northern Ghana. Scandanavian Journal of Public Health. 38(1).
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