VoICE Immunization Evidence: Growth, Development, and Nutrition
Vaccine preventable diseases are linked to poor growth and can further impact an already weakened immune system.
Key Evidence: A large longitudinal study in the Philippines found that children suffering bouts of diarrhea and respiratory infections were at a significantly increased risk of physical stunting which is associated with “poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive development.”
Adair, L.S. and Guilkey, D.K. 1997. Age-specific determinants of stunting in Filipino children. The Journal of Nutrition. 127:314-20.
Key Evidence: A prospective case-control study conducted in several developing countries found that children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea grew significantly less in length in the two months following their episode compared to age- and gender-matched controls.
Kotloff, K.L., Nataro, J.P., Blackwelder, W.C., et al 2013. Burden and aetiology of diarrhoeal disease in infants and young children in developing countries (the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, GEMS): a prospective, case-control study. Lancet. 382(9888):209–22.
Key Evidence: In a study conducted in Southern India, pneumococcal carriage at age 2 months was associated with a 3-fold risk of stunting and decreased weight, length, and length-for-age by 6 months of age. Pneumococcal carriage at 4 months of age did not affect growth.
Coles, C.L., Rahmathullah, L., Kanungo, R., et al 2012. Pneumococcal carriage at age 2 months is associated with growth deficits at age 6 months among infants in South India. Journal of Nutrition. 142(6):1088-94.
Key Evidence: A study of Kenyan children under 5 years of age found that children with diarrhea and cough in the 2 weeks prior to the survey were 80-90% more likely to be underweight or to suffer from wasting.
Gewa, C.A. and Yandell, N. 2011. Undernutrition among Kenyan children: contribution of child, maternal and household factors. Public Health Nutrition. 15(6):1029-38.