VoICE Immunization Evidence: Conflict and Humanitarian emergencies
Vaccines are a cost-effective means to reduce the high burden of pneumonia and diarrhea suffered by children living in humanitarian crisis settings.
Key Evidence: In a study modeling the cost-effectiveness of vaccination campaigns in Somalia – the country with the second largest number of refugees in 2012 – the use of Hib vaccine, PCV10, or both Hib and PCV10 were all found to be cost effective means to prevent excess morbidity and mortality from pneumonia in young Somali children. Such a vaccination campaign could conservatively reduce pneumonia cases and deaths by nearly 20%.
Gargano L.M., Hajjeh R., and Cookson S.T. 2015. Pneumonia prevention during a humanitarian emergency: Cost-effectiveness of Haemophilus Influenzae Type B conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Somalia. Prehospital and Disaster Medicine. 2015; 30(4): 402-11.
Key Evidence: Children living in the Yida refugee camp in South Sudan in 2013 were found to have an elevated rate of pneumonia infections likely due to malnutrition, overcrowding, and inadequate shelter. Using these data, the CDC estimated that the use of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines in children under 2 years of age in the camp would be cost-effective under all dosing scenarios evaluated. Medecines Sans Frontiers (MSF) provided medical services to this refugee camp and found delivery of these vaccines to be feasible and effective in this setting.
Gargano L.M., Hajjeh R., and Cookson S.T. 2017. Pneumonia prevention: Cost-effectiveness analyses of two vaccines among refugee children aged under two years, Haemophilus influenzae type b-containing and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, during a humanitarian emergency, Yida camp, South Sudan. Vaccine. 2017; 35(3): 435-441.