VoICE Immunization Evidence: Antimicrobial Resistance
Antibiotic resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria are a serious problem among HIV positive people.
Among all parents (HIV positive and negative) in this study in Kenya, 99% of pneumococcal strains found and tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics.16% more strains carried by HIV positive parents were resistant to penicillin than those carried by HIV negative parents.
Conklin, L.M., Bigogo, G., Jagero, G., et al 2016. High Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization prevalence among HIV-infected Kenyan parents in the year before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. BMC Infectious Disease. 16:18.