VoICE Immunization Evidence: Herd effects
This study based on active surveillance in the US before and after introduction of PCV estimated 38,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were averted in the first 5 years of vaccine use, and an additional 71,000 cases of disease were prevented through herd effects.
Ray, G.T., Whitney, C., Fireman, B., et al 2006. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 25:494-501.
Assuming 90% coverage, a program in The Gambia using a 9-valent PCV (PCV9) would prevent approximately 630 hospitalizations, 40 deaths, and 1000 DALYs over the first 5 years of life of a birth cohort. The estimated cost would be $670 per DALY averted in The Gambia.
Kim, S., Lee, G. and Goldie, S. 2010. Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia. BMC Infectious Diseases. 10:260.