VoICE Immunization Evidence: Cognition
Survivors of pneumococcal meningitis frequently suffer from cognitive impairment and neurological sequelae.
Key Evidence: In The Gambia, 58% of children who survived pneumococcal meningitis had long lasting negative health outcomes. Half had major disabilities such as mental retardation, hearing loss, motor abnormalities, and seizures.
Goetghebuer, T., West, T.E., Wermenbol, V., et al 2000. Outcome of meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b in children in The Gambia. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 5(3):207-13.
Key Evidence: In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, it was found that one quarter of children who survived pneumococcal or Hib meningitis had neuropsychological deficits.
Ramakrishnan, M., Ulland, A.J., Steinhardt, L.C., et al 2009. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review. BMC Medicine. 7:47.