VoICE Immunization Evidence: Cost effectiveness
The indirect benefit of immunization to unvaccinated individuals (herd immunity) increases the cost-effectiveness of vaccines.
The evidence on cholera disease dynamics suggests that significant herd protection can result from a relatively small number of immunizations, particularly in endemic areas where there is some natural immunity among the population.
Jeuland, M., Lucas, M., Clemens, J.,et al 2009. A Cost–Benefit Analysis of Cholera Vaccination Programs in Beira, Mozambique. World Bank Economic Review. 23:235–267.
This study based on active surveillance in the US before and after introduction of PCV estimated 38,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were averted in the first 5 years of vaccine use, at an estimated cost of US$112,000 per life year saved. However, after inclusion of 71,000 cases of disease that were prevented through herd effects, researchers estimate a cost of US$7,500 per life year saved.
Ray, G.T., Whitney, C., Fireman, B., et al 2006. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 25:494-501.