VoICE : Search Immunization Evidence

RESET ALL

Keyword

Topic

Topic

Disease or vaccine

Disease or vaccine

Location

Location

Published year

The VoICE tool is a compendium of the many direct and downstream impacts of vaccine-preventable disease and immunization. The database contains summary explanations of the link between immunization and each impact, as well as sources of evidence for each link. You can browse the VoICE tool by topic, or use the filters to find results based on topic, disease or vaccine, location and published year.

18 Key Ideas, 13 Sources
Key Idea

After instituting a multiple-strategy community intervention program in India, for pregnant women who had an institutional delivery, the geographic and socioeconomic inequities between those in urban and rural areas declined from 22% to 7.6%, and disparities between the rich and poor declined from 48.2% to 13%.

View Source >

Key Idea

Findings of a systematic review evaluating the relationship between pneumonia and malnourishment found that severely malnourished children in developing countries had 2.5 to 15 times the risk of death. For children with moderate malnutrition, the risk of death ranged from 1.2 to 36.

View Source >

Key Idea

In a study modeling the economic impact of immunization in 41 low- and middle-income countries, the authors estimate that 24 million cases of medical impoverishment would be averted through the use of vaccines administered from 2016-2030. The largest proportion of poverty cases averted would occur in the poorest 40% of these populations, demonstrating that vaccination can provide financial risk protection to the most economically vulnerable.

View Source >

Key Idea

Through use of local Maternal Child Health (MCH) incentives, along with the use of locally appointed Health Activists, India’s National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) multiple-strategy community intervention program was able to achieve household level improvements in all of the following indicators for women and children over the 7 year program:
– the proportion of pregnant women having 3 or more ante-natal check-ups (from 43% to 74.5%)
– receiving at least one Tetanus Toxoid injection (from 83.5% to 93.6%)
– institutional deliveries (from 35.7% to 77%)
– post-natal check-ups within 2 weeks of delivery (from 49% to 67.2%) and,
– children who received ORS for diarrhea from (32.3% to 44.8%).

View Source >

Key Idea

Children living in the Yida refugee camp in South Sudan in 2013 were found to have an elevated rate of pneumonia infections likely due to malnutrition, overcrowding, and inadequate shelter. Using these data, the CDC estimated that the use of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines in children under 2 years of age in the camp would be cost-effective under all dosing scenarios evaluated. Medecines Sans Frontiers (MSF) provided medical services to this refugee camp and found delivery of these vaccines to be feasible and effective in this setting.

View Source >

Key Idea

The 2008 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggest that children in communities with high unemployment were 1/3 as likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with a medium level of unemployment.

View Source >

Key Idea

A study looking at the relationship between gender roles and full immunization coverage of children in Nigeria found that children of mothers who did not have decision-making autonomy were half as likely to be fully immunized than mothers with autonomy. To further assess the roles of gender and relationship power, children were nearly twice as likely to be fully vaccinated in households where only the mother contributed to household earnings compared to children whose parents contributed equally.

View Source >

Key Idea

Malnutrition is a leading contributor to morbidity and mortality during humanitarian emergencies and a cyclical relationship exists between malnutrition and infectious diseases. Universal immunization programs have been shown to improve the height and weight measurement markers associated with malnutrition.

View Source >

Key Idea

Researchers estimate that vaccinating against 10 diseases in the world’s 94 poorest countries between 2011-2020 will avert $586 Billion in costs of illness (including treatment costs, transportation costs, lost caretaker wages and productivity losses due to death and disability). The 73 Gavi-supported countries account for $544 billion of the treatment costs averted.

View Source >

Key Idea

Vaccines that can protect against pneumonia – Hib and S. pneumoniae vaccines – can together prevent over 1.25 million cases of poverty over 15 years, found researchers modeling the economic impact of immunization in 41 low- and middle-income countries.

View Source >

Key Idea

A recent study estimated that, during the decade from 2011-2020, every $1 invested in immunization programs in the world’s 73 poorest countries would yield a $16 return on investment. Using an approach accounting for additional societal benefits of vaccination (the “full income approach”, which quantifies the value that people place on living longer and healthier lives), researchers estimated the return could be as high as $44 per $1 invested.

View Source >

Key Idea

In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, it was found that one quarter of children who survived pneumococcal or Hib meningitis had neuropsychological deficits.

View Source >

Key Idea

Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggests that community literacy influences immunization status. Children in communities with low levels of illiteracy were 82% less likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with medium levels of illiteracy.

View Source >

A study conducted in Eastern Uganda found that Ugandan children whose mothers had some secondary schooling were 50% more likely to have received scheduled vaccinations by 6 months of age than children whose mothers had attended school only through primary level. This effect became more pronounced with delivery of the later doses of each vaccine (OPV2, 3 & DPT-HB-Hib 2,3).

View Source >

Key Idea

An analysis of data from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey investigated the relationship between individual- and community-levels of women’s autonomy and children’s immunization status. The results show that community-level autonomy is associated with an increased number of children’s immunizations above and beyond that of individual-level women’s autonomy. These results indicate that empowering women within households not only improves the individual mother’s children’s health, but also serves to improve the lives of other children within the community.

View Source >

Key Idea

Nearly a quarter of a million children are born with sickle cell disease in Africa each year. SCD was found to increase the risk of Hib infections by 13-fold and pneumococcal infections by 36 fold. This means that children with SCD stand to benefit enormously from PCV and Hib immunization.

View Source >

Key Idea

A study modeling the economic impact of 10 childhood immunizations in 41 low- and middle-income countries found that the bulk of poverty averted through vaccination occurs in poor populations. For most of the vaccines in the study, at least 40% of the poverty averted would occur in the poorest wealth quintile. Particularly for pneumonia, more than half of the two million deaths averted by pneumococcal and Hib vaccines would occur in the poorest 40% of the population.

View Source >

Key Idea

In a study modeling the cost-effectiveness of vaccination campaigns in Somalia – the country with the second largest number of refugees in 2012 – the use of Hib vaccine, PCV10, or both Hib and PCV10 were all found to be cost effective means to prevent excess morbidity and mortality from pneumonia in young Somali children. Such a vaccination campaign could conservatively reduce pneumonia cases and deaths by nearly 20%.

View Source >

Children living in the Yida refugee camp in South Sudan in 2013 were found to have an elevated rate of pneumonia infections likely due to malnutrition, overcrowding, and inadequate shelter. Using these data, the CDC estimated that the use of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines in children under 2 years of age in the camp would be cost-effective under all dosing scenarios evaluated. Medecines Sans Frontiers (MSF) provided medical services to this refugee camp and found delivery of these vaccines to be feasible and effective in this setting.

View Source >

Key Idea

In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, the authors conclude: “Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high mortality and risk of neuropsychological sequelae. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill approximately one third of affected children and cause clinically evident sequelae in a quarter of survivors prior to hospital discharge. The three leading causes of bacterial meningitis are vaccine preventable, and routine use of conjugate vaccines could provide substantial health and economic benefits through the prevention of childhood meningitis cases, deaths and disability.”

View Source >