VoICE : Search Immunization Evidence

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The VoICE tool is a compendium of the many direct and downstream impacts of vaccine-preventable disease and immunization. The database contains summary explanations of the link between immunization and each impact, as well as sources of evidence for each link. You can browse the VoICE tool by topic, or use the filters to find results based on topic, disease or vaccine, location and published year.

11 Key Concepts, 8 Sources
Key Concept

Key Evidence: The 2008 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggest that children in communities with high unemployment were 1/3 as likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with a medium level of unemployment.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: The 2008 Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggest that children in communities with high unemployment were 1/3 as likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with a medium level of unemployment.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: Children hospitalized with rotavirus in Norway were absent from daycare for 6.3 days, on average, and 73% of their parents missed work — for a mean of almost 6 days. These data, which can be used in economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination, show that work absenteeism resulting from having a child hospitalized with rotavirus poses a considerable economic burden on society.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: A small study from the Philippines, published in a Working Paper from Harvard University, found that children immunized with 6 basic vaccines scored better on three cognitive tests (verbal, mathematics and language) at age 11 compared to children who received none of these 6 vaccines.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: In the mid-1980s, the Indian government examined the effect of their universal immunization program on child mortality and educational attainment. Results indicate that exposure to the program reduced infant mortality by 0.4 percentage points and under five child mortality by 0.5 percentage points. These effects on mortality account for approximately one-fifth of the decline in infant and under five child mortality rates between 1985-1990. The effects are more pronounced in rural areas, for poor people, and for members of historically disadvantaged groups.

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Key Evidence: In a study of immunization in the Philippines, children vaccinated against 6 diseases performed significantly better on verbal reasoning, math, and language tests than those who were unvaccinated. (note: Researchers did not find an association with physical growth.)

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: A study of the economic burden of cholera in Africa found that 110,837 cases of cholera reported in 2007 resulted in an economic loss of $43.3 million, $60 million and $72.7 million US dollars, assuming life expectancies of 40, 53 and 73 years respectively.

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Key Evidence: Researchers modeled the costs, using the UK’s 2004 economy, of potential pandemic flu in the UK. Costs of illness alone ranged between 0.5% and 1.0% of gross domestic product (£8.4bn to £16.8bn) for low fatality scenarios, 3.3% and 4.3% (£55.5bn to £72.3bn) for high fatality scenarios, and larger still for an extreme pandemic. Vaccination with a pre-pandemic vaccine could save 0.13% to 2.3% of gross domestic product (£2.2bn to £38.6bn); a single dose of a matched vaccine could save 0.3% to 4.3% (£5.0bn to £72.3bn), and two doses of a matched vaccine could limit the overall economic impact to about 1% of gross domestic product for all disease scenarios.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: For every 6 children vaccinated against measles in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

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Key Evidence: In 1996, a follow-up study was conducted on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: This study follows up on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers in Bangladesh. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: For every 6 children vaccinated against measles in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: A study looking at the relationship between gender roles and full immunization coverage of children in Nigeria found that children of mothers who did not have decision-making autonomy were half as likely to be fully immunized than mothers with autonomy. To further assess the roles of gender and relationship power, children were nearly twice as likely to be fully vaccinated in households where only the mother contributed to household earnings compared to children whose parents contributed equally.

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Key Concept

Key Evidence: The Indian government childhood immunization program, UIP, designed in the 1980s to reduce the high mortality and morbidity in children, resulted in reduced infant mortality by 0.4% percentage points and under-5 mortality by 0.5%. These effects on mortality are sizable as they account for approximately one-fifth of the decline in infant and under-five child mortality rates between 1985-1990. The effects are more pronounced in rural area, for poor people, and for members of historically disadvantaged groups. The 0.5% reduction each year over 5 years (from 15% under-5 mortality in 1985 to 12.3% in 1990), represents an 18% reduction overall in under-5 mortality.

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