VoICE : Search Immunization Evidence

RESET ALL

Keyword

Topic

Topic

Disease or vaccine

Disease or vaccine

Location

Location

Published year

The VoICE tool is a compendium of the many direct and downstream impacts of vaccine-preventable disease and immunization. The database contains summary explanations of the link between immunization and each impact, as well as sources of evidence for each link. You can browse the VoICE tool by topic, or use the filters to find results based on topic, disease or vaccine, location and published year.

12 Key Ideas, 9 Sources
Key Idea

Among families participating in a study in Western Cape, South Africa, 35% of mothers who were previously employed stopped working to care for children who had survived tuberculosis meningitis with permanent disabilities. 19% of families reported experiencing financial loss as a result of caring for these disabled children.

View Source >

Key Idea

For every 6 children vaccinated against measles in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

View Source >

In 1996, a follow-up study was conducted on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

View Source >

Key Idea

Among families participating in a study in Western Cape, South Africa, 35% of mothers who were previously employed stopped working to care for children who had survived tuberculosis meningitis resulting in permanent disabilities. 19% of families reported experiencing financial loss as a result of caring for these disabled children.

View Source >

Key Idea

A large longitudinal study in the Philippines found that children suffering bouts of diarrhea and respiratory infections were at a significantly increased risk of physical stunting which is associated with “poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive development.”

View Source >

Children in a Brazilian Shantytown with a high incidence of diarrhea in the first two years of life scored significantly lower on 3/5 types of tests measuring cognitive function at ages 6-10 compared to children who did not suffer recurrent bouts of early childhood diarrhea.

View Source >

Key Idea

A study analyzing the long-term consequences of middle ear disease in children in an urban health center and a private practice in the United States found that time spent with middle ear effusion during the first 3 years of life was significantly associated with lower school performance and lower scores in cognitive ability, speech, and language.

View Source >

Key Idea

In The Gambia, 58% of children who survived a bout of pneumococcal meningitis “had clinical sequelae; half of them had major disability preventing normal adaptation to social life” (mental retardation, hearing loss, motor abnormalities, seizures).

View Source >

In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, it was found that one quarter of children who survived pneumococcal or Hib meningitis had neuropsychological deficits.

View Source >

Key Idea

In a study of children in a Brazilian shantytown, researchers found that the greater the number of episodes of persistent diarrhea before age two, the more delayed a child was in terms of school readiness. Overall, each episode of diarrhea delayed a child’s starting school by 0.7 months. Likewise, 6-10 years later, increasing episodes of diarrhea before age two predicted delays in age-appropriate educational attainment.

View Source >

Key Idea

Among children participating in a study in Western Cape, South Africa who were well enough to attend school after surviving tuberculous meningitis, more than half (53%) had failed a school grade at least once.

View Source >

Key Idea

This study follows up on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers in Bangladesh. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

View Source >

Key Idea

For every 6 children vaccinated against measles in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

View Source >

Key Idea

A large longitudinal study in the Philippines found that children suffering bouts of diarrhea and respiratory infections were at a significantly increased risk of physical stunting which is associated with “poor functional outcomes such as impaired cognitive development.”

View Source >

Key Idea

In Gambia, 58% of children who survived a bout of pneumococcal meningitis “had clinical sequelae; half of them had major disability preventing normal adaptation to social life” (mental retardation, hearing loss, motor abnormalities, seizures).

View Source >

In a systematic literature review of studies in Africa, the authors conclude: “Bacterial meningitis in Africa is associated with high mortality and risk of neuropsychological sequelae. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis kill approximately one third of affected children and cause clinically evident sequelae in a quarter of survivors prior to hospital discharge. The three leading causes of bacterial meningitis are vaccine preventable, and routine use of conjugate vaccines could provide substantial health and economic benefits through the prevention of childhood meningitis cases, deaths, and disability.”

View Source >