VoICE : Search Immunization Evidence
The VoICE tool is a compendium of the many direct and downstream impacts of vaccine-preventable disease and immunization. The database contains summary explanations of the link between immunization and each impact, as well as sources of evidence for each link. You can browse the VoICE tool by topic, or use the filters to find results based on topic, disease or vaccine, location and published year.
Sustaining immunization activities and preventing vaccine-preventable outbreaks during conflict can be achieved through preemptive preparedness measures and concerted programmatic and financial support from governments and partners.
During the conflict in Yemen, efforts spearheaded by WHO, with coordination among partners and effective use of resources, especially GAVI, resulted in continued high pentavalent vaccine coverage decreasing only 3% from 2010 to 2015. Yemen also remained polio-free through 2015 and smoothly introduced two new vaccines (MR and IPV).
During the humanitarian crisis in the Syrian Arab Republic, the constant support from WHO, UNICEF, and local NGOs resulted in immunizations against VPDs reaching over 90% of children.
A strong national immunization program can be leveraged during critical health emergencies to aid in outbreak response.
The detection of H1N1 influenza virus in Mexico in 2009, and subsequently throughout other countries in the Americas, benefited from the laboratory experience with measles and rubella in the region, leading to the rapid detection of and response to what eventually became a novel pandemic virus.
2 of the 18 drug-resistant threats to US health security identified in a 2013 CDC report are potentially vaccine-preventable.
The use of vaccines is a critical step in controlling the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant infections.
The US CDC identifies the use of vaccines as one of the 4 critical steps for controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Conflict and migration can lead to outbreaks, including in previously controlled or eliminated diseases, and jeopardized disease control efforts.
Large measles outbreaks occurred in Lebanon and Jordan, following an influx of Syrian refuges migrating to escape conflict. In Lebanon, the measles incidence increased 200-fold in one year following high migration. There were 2.1 measles cases per million population in Lebanon in 2012; this increased to 411 cases per million in 2013.
Immunization globally provides a key opportunity to control emerging disease outbreaks and prevent the spread of disease across national borders.
Vaccines against yellow fever and cholera continue to be critical to managing outbreaks of disease and protecting national and international health security.
Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean Region impacted health infrastructure and compromised the success of the region’s measles elimination goal. At the same time that rates of migration and displacement skyrocketed, the number of measles cases in the region doubled, from 10,072 cases in 2010 to 20,898 in 2015.
In 2013 nearly all of the 175 cases of measles in the US could be traced back to international importations.
World travel can perpetuate the spread of multi-drug resistant strains of disease that could be prevented through immunization.
TB and pneumococcal infections are two of 18 drug-resistant threats to US health security identified by the CDC in 2013 and are potentially vaccine-preventable. Most antibiotic resistant TB infections in the US occur in people born outside the US.
Mothers infected with rubella virus during the first trimester of pregnancy can give birth to children with permanent disabilities such as intellectual impairment, autism, blindness, deafness, and cardiac defects. The infection is completely preventable if mothers are vaccinated before pregnancy.
The approach to polio eradication in the Americas has already been leveraged for the control and tracking of measles and rubella.
In the Americas, a platform built to secure polio eradication has been expanded to help track, control, prevent, and monitor immunization impact for measles and rubella. In India, highly trained polio health workers have become the basis for a trained workforce working towards the elimination of measles and rubella and helping ensure India’s certification by WHO for having eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.
Introduction of vaccines or strengthening of immunization programs can provide opportunities for increased collaboration between agencies with potential for long-term benefits.
The American Academy of Pediatrics and the International Pediatric Association were included as partners in the measles and rubella elimination initiative, allowing for more direct collaboration around the interactions of primary health and immunization services and concerns.
The detection of H1N1 influenza virus in Mexico in 2009, and subsequently throughout other countries in the Americas, benefited from the laboratory experience with measles and rubella in the region, leading to the rapid detection of, and response to, what eventually became a novel pandemic virus.
Antimicrobial-resistant infections are expensive to treat and place an economic burden on families and health systems.
The US CDC estimates that antibiotic resistant pneumococcal infections in the US add $96 million to the costs of treatment each year.