VoICE Immunization Evidence: Antimicrobial Resistance

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Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic resistance is the ability of certain strains of microorganisms to develop partial or complete resistance to antibiotics, rendering the antibiotic ineffective to treat the disease or condition. Antibiotic resistant infections carry high treatment costs and can threaten the security of others, increasing the importance of prevention for those vaccine-preventable diseases prone to the development of antibiotic resistance. Related information can be found in the Economics and Health Security sections.
6 Key Ideas, 6 Sources
Key Idea

This study from South Africa demonstrates significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease cases caused by bacteria that are resistant to one or more antibiotics. In fact, the rate of infections resistant to two different antibiotics declined nearly twice as much as infections that could be treated with antibiotics.

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Key Idea

2 of the 18 drug-resistant threats to US health security identified in a 2013 CDC report are potentially vaccine-preventable.

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Key Idea

Among all parents (HIV positive and negative) in this study in Kenya, 99% of pneumococcal strains found and tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics.16% more strains carried by HIV positive parents were resistant to penicillin than those carried by HIV negative parents.

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Key Idea

Reductions in the number of days that patients received antibiotic therapy have been documented among day-care attendees in Israel who received the 9-valent conjugate vaccine. Children who received vaccine had 10% fewer days of antibiotic usage for upper respiratory tract infections, 47% fewer days of antibiotic usage for lower respiratory tract infections and 20% fewer days of antibiotic usage for otitis media (ear infections) as compared to children who did not receive PCV.

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In a study of nearly 40,000 recipients of PCV7 and control subjects in northern California, there was a 5.4% reduction in the number of antibiotic prescriptions and a 12.6% reduction in the use of “second-line antibiotics” among children who received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Between the time the first dose was administered and the age of 3.5 years, use of the vaccine prevented 35 antibiotic prescriptions per 100 fully vaccinated children.

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Key Idea

The US CDC identifies the use of vaccines as one of the 4 critical steps for controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance.

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A systematic review of studies from India found that prior to widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, antibiotic resistance in serious pneumoccocal infections among Indian children has been common. Penicillin resistance was found in 10% of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases, while trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in more than 80% of these cases.

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Key Idea

The US CDC estimates that antibiotic resistant pneumococcal infections in the US add $96 million to the costs of treatment each year.

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A woman carrying vaccines

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The VoICE tool allows you to search for research studies and published evidence based on a topic, location, and disease or vaccine.

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