"KEY IDEAS",REFERENCE,"KEY RESULTS",ABSTRACT,YEAR,VPD,LOCATION "The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has been shown to significantly reduce the rate of antibiotic and multi-drug resistant strains of pneumococcal disease affecting children.","""Von Gottberg, A., de Gouveia, L., Tempia, S., et al 2014. Effects of pneumococcal vaccine in invasive pneumococcal disease in South Africa. New England Journal of Medicine. 371:1889-99""","This study from South Africa demonstrates significant declines in invasive pneumococcal disease cases caused by bacteria that are resistant to one or more antibiotics. In fact, the rate of infections resistant to two different antibiotics declined nearly twice as much as infections that could be treated with antibiotics. ",http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa1401914,2014,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","African Region, SOUTH AFRICA" "Several antibiotic-resistant health threats are vaccine-preventable.","""Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 (Report). . ""","2 of the 18 drug-resistant threats to US health security identified in a 2013 CDC report are potentially vaccine-preventable. ",http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf#page=11,2013,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV, Tuberculosis / BCG","American Region, UNITED STATES" "Antibiotic resistant strains of disease-causing bacteria are a serious problem among HIV positive people.","""Conklin, L.M., Bigogo, G., Jagero, G., et al 2016. High Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization prevalence among HIV-infected Kenyan parents in the year before pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. BMC Infectious Disease. 16:18""","Among all parents (HIV positive and negative) in this study in Kenya, 99% of pneumococcal strains found and tested were resistant to one or more antibiotics.16% more strains carried by HIV positive parents were resistant to penicillin than those carried by HIV negative parents. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4715316/,2016,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","African Region, KENYA" "Use of vaccines decreases the need to use antibiotics to treat disease, thus reducing the opportunity for the development of antimicrobial resistance.","""Dagan, R., Sikuler-Cohen, M., Zamir, O., et al 2001. Effect of a conjugate pneumococcal vaccine on the occurrence of respiratory infections and antibiotic use in day-care center attendees. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 20(10):951-8""","Reductions in the number of days that patients received antibiotic therapy have been documented among day-care attendees in Israel who received the 9-valent conjugate vaccine. Children who received vaccine had 10% fewer days of antibiotic usage for upper respiratory tract infections, 47% fewer days of antibiotic usage for lower respiratory tract infections and 20% fewer days of antibiotic usage for otitis media (ear infections) as compared to children who did not receive PCV. ",https://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?pmid=11642629,2001,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","European Region, ISRAEL" "Use of vaccines decreases the need to use antibiotics to treat disease, thus reducing the opportunity for the development of antimicrobial resistance.","""Fireman, B., Black, S.B., Shinefield, H.R., et al 2003. Impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on otitis media. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 22(1):10-6""","In a study of nearly 40,000 recipients of PCV7 and control subjects in northern California, there was a 5.4% reduction in the number of antibiotic prescriptions and a 12.6% reduction in the use of “second-line antibiotics” among children who received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Between the time the first dose was administered and the age of 3.5 years, use of the vaccine prevented 35 antibiotic prescriptions per 100 fully vaccinated children. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12544402,2003,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","Gavi-eligible country, American Region, UNITED STATES" "The use of vaccines is a critical step in controlling the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant infections.","""Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 (Report). . ""","The US CDC identifies the use of vaccines as one of the 4 critical steps for controlling the spread of antibiotic resistance. ",http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf#page=11,2013,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV, Tuberculosis / BCG","American Region, UNITED STATES" "The use of vaccines is a critical step in controlling the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant infections.","""Singh, J., Sundaresan, S., Manoharan, A. and Shet, A. 2017. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children≤ 5 years with invasive pneumococcal disease in India–A systematic review. Vaccine. 35(35), pp.4501-4509""","A systematic review of studies from India found that prior to widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, antibiotic resistance in serious pneumoccocal infections among Indian children has been common. Penicillin resistance was found in 10% of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases, while trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in more than 80% of these cases. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28711387,2017,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","Global, Gavi-eligible country, INDIA, South-East Asia Region" "Antimicrobial-resistant infections are expensive to treat and place an economic burden on families and health systems.","""Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013. Antibiotic resistance threats in the United States, 2013 (Report). . ""","The US CDC estimates that antibiotic resistant pneumococcal infections in the US add $96 million to the costs of treatment each year. ",http://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/threat-report-2013/pdf/ar-threats-2013-508.pdf#page=11,2013,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV, Tuberculosis / BCG","American Region, UNITED STATES"