"KEY IDEAS",REFERENCE,"KEY RESULTS",ABSTRACT,YEAR,VPD,LOCATION "Vaccines are most cost-effective in low-income groups and regions.","""Rheingans, R., Atherly, D., and Anderson, J. 2012. Distributional impact of rotavirus vaccination in 25 GAVI countries: Estimating disparities in benefits and cost-effectiveness. Vaccine. 30S:A14-A23""","An analysis of the impact of rotavirus vaccine in 25 Gavi countries found that the rates of vaccination in all countries were highest and risk mortality lowest in the top two wealth quintile’s coverage. Countries differed in the relative inequities in these two underlying variables. Cost per DALYs averted is substantially greater in the higher quintiles. In all countries, the greatest potential vaccine benefit was in the poorest quintiles; however, reduced vaccination coverage lowered the projected vaccine benefit. ",http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264410X12000333?via%3Dihub,2012,Rotavirus,"BANGLADESH, Gavi-eligible country, African Region, INDIA, CAMBODIA, American Region, BURKINA FASO, CAMEROON, South-East Asia Region, NEPAL, Western Pacific Region, CHAD, CONGO, THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE, ETHIOPIA, GHANA, HAITI, GUINEA, KENYA, LESOTHO, LIBERIA, MALAWI, MALI, MOZAMBIQUE, NIGER, NIGERIA, SENEGAL, SIERRA LEONE, TANZANIA, UNITED REPUBLIC OF, UGANDA, ZAMBIA" "Vaccines are most cost-effective in low-income groups and regions.","""Johannsen, K.A, Memirie, S.T., Pecenka, C. et al 2015. Health gains and financial protection from pneumococcal vaccination and pneumonia treatment in Ethiopia: Results from an extended cost-effectiveness analysis. PLOS ONE. 10(12)""","A study looking at the impact of pneumococcal vaccine introduction and scaling up pneumonia treatment in Ethiopia found that 30-40% of all deaths averted by these interventions would be expected to occur in the poorest wealth quintile. The greatest resulting financial risk protection would also be concentrated among the bottom income quintile. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4674114/,2015,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV, Pneumonia","Gavi-eligible country, African Region, ETHIOPIA" "Vaccines are most cost-effective in low-income groups and regions.","""Bishai, D., Koenig, M., and Khan, M.A. 2003. Measles vaccination improves the equity of health outcomes: evidence from Bangladesh. Health Economics. 12(5):415-9""","A study of measles vaccine in Bangladesh found that children from the poorest quintile were more than twice as likely to die as those from the least quintile in the absence of measles vaccination. The difference in mortality between unvaccinated and vaccinated was statistically significant (p<0.10) and robust across alternative measures of socioeconomic status. ",http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hec.732/abstract,2003,Measles,"BANGLADESH, Gavi-eligible country, South-East Asia Region" "Vaccination is a cost effective approach to prevent illness in fragile settings.","""Gargano L.M., Hajjeh R., and Cookson S.T. 2017. Pneumonia prevention: Cost-effectiveness analyses of two vaccines among refugee children aged under two years, Haemophilus influenzae type b-containing and pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, during a humanitarian emergency, Yida camp, South Sudan. Vaccine. 2017; 35(3): 435-441""","Children living in the Yida refugee camp in South Sudan in 2013 were found to have an elevated rate of pneumonia infections likely due to malnutrition, overcrowding, and inadequate shelter. Using these data, the CDC estimated that the use of Hib and pneumococcal vaccines in children under 2 years of age in the camp would be cost-effective under all dosing scenarios evaluated. Medecines Sans Frontiers (MSF) provided medical services to this refugee camp and found delivery of these vaccines to be feasible and effective in this setting. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5497221/pdf/nihms859583.pdf,2017,"Haemophilus lnfluenzae type b (Hib), Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV, Pneumonia","African Region, SUDAN, REPUBLIC OF SOUTH" "The indirect benefit of immunization to unvaccinated individuals (herd immunity) increases the cost-effectiveness of vaccines.","""Jeuland, M., Lucas, M., Clemens, J.,et al 2009. A Cost–Benefit Analysis of Cholera Vaccination Programs in Beira, Mozambique. World Bank Economic Review. 23:235–267""","The evidence on cholera disease dynamics suggests that significant herd protection can result from a relatively small number of immunizations, particularly in endemic areas where there is some natural immunity among the population. ",https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1093/wber/lhp006,2009,Cholera,"Gavi-eligible country, African Region, MOZAMBIQUE" "The indirect benefit of immunization to unvaccinated individuals (herd immunity) increases the cost-effectiveness of vaccines.","""Ray, G.T., Whitney, C., Fireman, B., et al 2006. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 25:494-501""","This study based on active surveillance in the US before and after introduction of PCV estimated 38,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were averted in the first 5 years of vaccine use, at an estimated cost of US$112,000 per life year saved. However, after inclusion of 71,000 cases of disease that were prevented through herd effects, researchers estimate a cost of US$7,500 per life year saved. ",http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2006/06000/Cost_Effectiveness_of_Pneumococcal_Conjugate.6.aspx,2006,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","American Region, UNITED STATES" "Vaccines are among the most cost-effective health interventions available.","""Jeuland, M., Cook, J., Poulos, C., et al 2009. Cost-effectiveness of new-generation oral cholera vaccines: A multisite analysis. Value Health. 12:899–908""","A multi-site study of cholera vaccination programs found that the vaccine was cost-effective in school- and community-based vaccination programs for children in India, Mozambique and Indonesia. ",https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1093/wber/lhp006,2009,Cholera,"BANGLADESH, Gavi-eligible country, African Region, INDIA, INDONESIA, South-East Asia Region, MOZAMBIQUE" "Vaccines are among the most cost-effective health interventions available.","""Giglio, N.D., Cane, A.D., Micone, P., et al 2010. Cost-effectiveness of the CRM-based 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) in Argentina. Vaccine. 28:2302–2310""","PCV7 use in Argentina resulted in an estimated cost of US$5599 per life year gained and the purchase of the 4 doses of vaccine for the entire cohort at a cost of US$ 26.5 dose would require an investment of US$ 73,823,806.00. ",https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40907076_Cost-effectiveness_of_the_CRM-based_7-valent_pneumococcal_conjugated_vaccine_PCV7_in_Argentina,2010,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","ARGENTINA, American Region" "Vaccines are among the most cost-effective health interventions available.","""Kim, S., Lee, G. and Goldie, S. 2010. Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia. BMC Infectious Diseases. 10:260""","Assuming 90% coverage, a program in The Gambia using a 9-valent PCV (PCV9) would prevent approximately 630 hospitalizations, 40 deaths, and 1000 DALYs, over the first 5 years of life of a birth cohort. The estimated cost would be $670 per DALY averted in The Gambia. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944347/pdf/1471-2334-10-260.pdf,2010,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","Gavi-eligible country, African Region, GAMBIA" "Vaccines are among the most cost-effective health interventions available.","""Lopez, E., Debbag, R., Coudeville, L., et al 2007. The cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination of children against hepatitis A in Argentina: results of a dynamic health-economic analysis. Journal of Gastroenterology. 42:152–160""","A study on the cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination in children found that at 95% vaccine coverage, the Hepatitis A immunization program in Argentina can reduce over 350,000 hepatitis A infections per year and 428 deaths. Benefits are observed when coverage is as low as 70% with over 290,000 prevented infections. In terms of cost, the program would save almost $24,000 annually at 95% coverage. ",https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00535-006-1984-x,2007,"Hepatitis A & B","ARGENTINA, American Region"