Key Evidence:A study from South Africa shows that reduction in birth rate (fertility) can yield certain socioeconomic benefits. These include 1) a decrease in ratio of economically dependent people 2) increased per capita labor force and 3) increased savings. These savings can be invested in physical human capital which aids in economic growth. As average family sizes decrease, parents are likely to invest more on their child’s health and education. This in turn offers potential benefits to long term productivity in adulthood.
The Demographic Transition sub-topic explores the phenomenon whereby the increased health and development of a population (usually due to industrialization) leads to a transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates. Immunization has contributed meaningfully to reducing childhood mortality worldwide and may thus be logically considered a key factor in the ongoing demographic transition in most developing countries.
2 Key Concepts
Key Evidence: Declining child mortality results in decreased fertility (birth rates), influencing a demographic transition on the national and regional scale. Improvements in public health are at the heart of the this transition due to improved sanitation, immunization programs, antibiotics, and contraceptives.