"KEY IDEAS",REFERENCE,"KEY RESULTS",ABSTRACT,YEAR,VPD,LOCATION "Immunization can help protect unimmunized children, adults and the elderly through herd effects.","""Ngabo, F., Tate, J.E., Gatera, M., et al 2016. Effect of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine introduction on hospital admissions for diarrhea and rotavirus in children in Rwanda: a time-series analysis. Lancet Global Health. 4:e129-36""","In a study in Rwanda, the number of admissions to hospital for diarrhea and rotavirus fell substantially after rotavirus vaccine implementation, including among older children age-ineligible for vaccination, suggesting indirect protection through reduced transmission of rotavirus. Two years after rotavirus vaccine introduction, the country saw nearly 400 fewer hospital admissions for diarrhea among young children at 24 district hospitals. ",https://ac.els-cdn.com/S2214109X15002703/1-s2.0-S2214109X15002703-main.pdf?_tid=1ec04170-e10e-11e7-8b4d-00000aacb35e&acdnat=1513283822_f877914b1bd3272ffa4307d4b9278e31,2016,"Diarrhea, Rotavirus","Gavi-eligible country, African Region, RWANDA" "Immunization can help protect unimmunized children, adults and the elderly through herd effects.","""Pollard, S.L., Malpica-Llanos, T., Friberg, I.K., . . Walker, N 2015. Estimating the herd immunity effect of rotavirus vaccine. Vaccine. 33(32)""","A meta-analysis conducted of data from studies measuring the impact of rotavirus vaccine (RVV) on severe gastroenteritis morbidity and mortality, reported a median herd immunity effect for severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than one year of age of 22% (US and El Salvador).  In studies in Latin America reporting an all-cause gastroenteritis benefit the median herd effect for severe gastroenteritis was 24.9%. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26116250,2015,Rotavirus,"American Region, BRAZIL, EL SALVADOR, MEXICO, NICARAGUA, PANAMA, UNITED STATES" "Immunization can help protect unimmunized children, adults and the elderly through herd effects.","""Patel, M.M., Glass, R., Desai, R., Tate, J.E. & Parashar, U.D. 2012. Fulfilling the promise of rotavirus vaccines: how far have we come since licensure?. Lancet Infectious Diseases. 12(7)""","Rotavirus hospital admissions in unvaccinated children aged 2-5 yrs. of age, who where not age-eligible to receive the Rotavirus vaccine (RVV), were reduced by 41%-92% in the US, 30-70% in Australia, 20-64% in Belgium, 35% in Austria and 41-81% in El Salvador following the introduction of RVV. In addition, there was a reduction in hospitalizations due to gastroenteritis of any cause by 17-51% in the US and 40% in Australia. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22742639,2012,Rotavirus,"AUSTRALIA, AUSTRIA, American Region, BELGIUM, European Region, Western Pacific Region, EL SALVADOR, UNITED STATES" "Immunization can help protect unimmunized children, adults and the elderly through herd effects.","""Ward, E. M., Flowers, C.R., Gansler, T., et al 2017. The importance of immunization in cancer prevention, treatment, and survivorship. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 67(5):398-410""","Children with cancer often rely on herd immunity as protection from vaccine-preventable diseases, so vaccinating family members and health workers is critical. Herd effects may be the only source of protection against diseases in which the vaccines are not recommended for immunosuppressed children, such as the measles vaccine. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28753241,2017,,"American Region, UNITED STATES" "Herd effects multiply the benefits of immunization.","""Ray, G.T., Whitney, C., Fireman, B., et al 2006. Cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: evidence from the first 5 years of use in the United States incorporating herd effects. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 25:494-501""","This study based on active surveillance in the US before and after introduction of PCV estimated 38,000 cases of invasive pneumococcal disease were averted in the first 5 years of vaccine use and an additional 71,000 cases of disease were prevented through herd effects. ",http://journals.lww.com/pidj/Abstract/2006/06000/Cost_Effectiveness_of_Pneumococcal_Conjugate.6.aspx,2006,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","American Region, UNITED STATES" "Herd effects multiply the benefits of immunization.","""Kim, S., Lee, G. and Goldie, S. 2010. Economic evaluation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in The Gambia. BMC Infectious Diseases. 10:260""","Assuming 90% coverage, a program in The Gambia using a 9-valent PCV (PCV9) would prevent approximately 630 hospitalizations, 40 deaths, and 1000 DALYs, over the first 5 years of life of a birth cohort. The estimated cost would be $670 per DALY averted in The Gambia. ",https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2944347/pdf/1471-2334-10-260.pdf,2010,"Pneumococcal disease / PCV / PPSV","Gavi-eligible country, African Region, GAMBIA"