A systematic literature review of studies of the long-term effects of invasive meningococcal disease in high-income countries found that children who survived the disease had a greater incidence of hearing loss and psychological problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than control groups or the general population. In addition, they had increased odds of death – one study showed more than a 25% greater mortality rate in this population than did the general public up to 30 years after having the disease.
Even though the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease declined in all groups, including individuals on immunosuppressive drugs, following the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines for infants in Norway, people on chemotherapy were still 20 times more likely to get IPD than individuals not on any immunosuppressants, while individuals on long-term corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive drugs were around 6 times more likely to get the disease.
A large study in Norway found that the overall incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) declined significantly in individuals on immunosuppressive drugs following the introduction of PCVs for infants — and most significantly in people undergoing chemotherapy. These findings underscore the benefits that childhood vaccination with PCVs affords the entire population.
Children hospitalized with rotavirus in Norway were absent from daycare for 6.3 days, on average, and 73% of their parents missed work — for a mean of almost 6 days. These data, which can be used in economic evaluations of rotavirus vaccination, show that work absenteeism resulting from having a child hospitalized with rotavirus poses a considerable economic burden on society.