The Value of Immunization Compendium of Evidence

  • Explore the VoICE Evidence

    VoICE is a searchable database intended to support immunization, child health and global health advocates by synthesizing evidence of the broader value of vaccines. The compendium contains sources illustrating the impact that vaccines, and vaccine-preventable diseases, can have on the health, economic status, societal well-being, equity, and other factors affecting families and nations worldwide.
  • Health

    The Health topic in VoICE focuses on the lesser known physical costs of vaccine-preventable diseases, and the health benefits of vaccines beyond the direct prevention of disease.

    Health topics:

    Featured Health source

    A study of Kenyan children under 5 years of age found that immunization with polio, BCG, DPT and measles to be protective against stunting in young children; 27% less likely to be stunted than unimmunized children under age 2 years. In addition, children with diarrhea and cough in the 2 weeks prior to the survey were 80-90% more likely to be underweight or to suffer from wasting.
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  • Education

    This topic looks at how vaccine-preventable disease impacts a child's education, and synthesizes the evidence of immunization’s protective effects on a child’s ability to attend school, stay in school, and perform well in school.

    Education topics:

    Featured Education source

    For every 6 children vaccinated with measles vaccine in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.
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  • Economics

    The Economics topic of VoICE covers system- or national-level measures such as cost-effectiveness, productivity loss and return on investment. We also look at the ways in which poverty and costs of illness are influenced by vaccine-preventable diseases and averted by vaccines, both nationally and for individuals and their families.

    Economics topics:

    Featured Economics source

    Vaccines that can protect against pneumonia – Hib and S. pneumoniae vaccines – can together prevent over 1.25 million cases of poverty over 15 years, found researchers modeling the economic impact of immunization in 41 low- and middle-income countries.
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  • Equity

    The Equity topic in VoICE examines the many ways in which equity can be measured – geographically, socially, economically, by disease risk, etc. – and the ways in which equity frames nearly every aspect of vaccine-preventable disease distribution and vaccine impact.

    Equity topics:

    Featured Equity source

    Inequity in vaccination coverage in India was found between states, within states, and in urban vs. rural. Lower parental education resulted in lower coverage, girls had lower coverage than boys and infants born to families with a large number of children also had lower coverage than others. A direct relationship between household wealth and coverage was also found.
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  • Health Systems & Integration

    This section looks at how immunization efforts can mutually reinforce other health and social programs, and the provision of health services. We also look at how vaccines can strengthen health systems, both by increasing preparedness and by alleviating pressure on overtaxed systems and medical facilities.

    Health Systems & Integration topics:

    Featured Health Systems & Integration source

    In the Americas, a platform built to secure polio eradication has been expanded to help track, control, prevent and monitor immunization impact for measles and rubella. In India, highly trained polio health workers have become the basis for a trained workforce working towards the elimination of measles and rubella and helping ensure India’s certification by WHO for having eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.
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  • Global Issues

    This cross-cutting section examines the linkages between large-scale current issues – such as humanitarian emergencies and antibiotic resistance – and vaccination, and illustrates how vaccination can either work to prevent the escalation of these threats, or to protect critically vulnerable groups from their negative impacts.

    Global Issues topics:

    Featured Global Issues source

    Large measles outbreaks occurred in Lebanon and Jordan, following an influx of Syrian refuges migrating to escape conflict. In Lebanon, the measles incidence increased 200-fold in one year following high migration. There were 2.1 measles cases per million population in Lebanon in 2012; this increased to 411 cases in 2013.
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What's New

Introducing two new sub-topics

The NEW Outbreak sub-topic contains evidence on the widespread consequences that infectious disease outbreaks have on health systems, economic growth, social and political stability, beyond the immediate impact on the health of those affected.
Evidence in the NEW Sociocultural Inequity subtopic illustrates how the uneven distribution of resources – often in patterns along socially defined categories – creates disparities in immunization rates and impacts individuals and communities.
New Evidence

VoICE now has over 300 evidence summaries!

VoICE now contains more than 300 key evidence summaries, falling into 6 main topics and 29 sub-topics, with data from current peer reviewed sources, all illustrating how immunizations add value to individuals, communities, health systems, and economies.

Women sitting with their babies

Topic to highlight


Check out our NEW Featured Issue on vaccination during outbreaks. Here, we bring you an evidence-backed overview of vaccine-preventable infectious disease outbreaks worldwide, with a special focus on the circumstances that increase the likelihood of an outbreak, the less-obvious health and economic consequences, and a “top five” list for outbreak prevention and preparedness.

Featured Issue

Vaccine-preventable Outbreaks: Becoming All Too Common and Costly

From Abuja to Atlanta, recent infectious disease outbreaks have all too commonly captured the regular news headlines. In this Featured Issue on vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks, the VoICE team goes past the headline, down to the fine print. We bring you an evidence-backed overview of vaccine-preventable infectious disease outbreaks worldwide, with a special focus on the circumstances that increase the likelihood of an outbreak, the less-obvious health and economic consequences, and a “top five” list for outbreak prevention and preparedness.