The Value of Immunization Compendium of Evidence

  • Explore the VoICE Evidence

    VoICE is a searchable database intended to support immunization, child health and global health advocates by synthesizing evidence of the broader value of vaccines. The compendium contains sources illustrating the impact that vaccines, and vaccine-preventable diseases, can have on the health, economic status, societal well-being, equity, and other factors affecting families and nations worldwide.

  • Health

    The Health topic in VoICE focuses on the lesser known physical costs of vaccine-preventable diseases, and the health benefits of vaccines beyond the direct prevention of disease.

    Health topics:

    Featured Health source

    A study of Kenyan children under 5 years of age found that immunization with polio, BCG, DPT and measles to be protective against stunting in young children; 27% less likely to be stunted than unimmunized children under age 2 years. In addition, children with diarrhea and cough in the 2 weeks prior to the survey were 80-90% more likely to be underweight or to suffer from wasting.

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  • Education

    This topic looks at how vaccine-preventable disease impacts a child’s education, and synthesizes the evidence of immunization’s protective effects on a child’s ability to attend school, stay in school, and perform well in school.

    Education topics:

    Featured Education source

    For every 6 children vaccinated with measles vaccine in a poor, largely rural community in South Africa, one additional grade of schooling was achieved.

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  • Economics

    The Economics topic of VoICE covers system- or national-level measures such as cost-effectiveness, productivity loss and return on investment. We also look at the ways in which poverty and costs of illness are influenced by vaccine-preventable diseases and averted by vaccines, both nationally and for individuals and their families.

    Economics topics:

    Featured Economics source

    Vaccines that can protect against pneumonia – Hib and S. pneumoniae vaccines – can together prevent over 1.25 million cases of poverty over 15 years, found researchers modeling the economic impact of immunization in 41 low- and middle-income countries.

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  • Equity

    The Equity topic in VoICE examines the many ways in which equity can be measured – geographically, socially, economically, by disease risk, etc. – and the ways in which equity frames nearly every aspect of vaccine-preventable disease distribution and vaccine impact.

    Equity topics:

    Featured Equity source

    Inequity in vaccination coverage in India was found between states, within states, and in urban vs. rural. Lower parental education resulted in lower coverage, girls had lower coverage than boys and infants born to families with a large number of children also had lower coverage than others. A direct relationship between household wealth and coverage was also found.

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  • Health Systems & Integration

    This section looks at how immunization efforts can mutually reinforce other health and social programs, and the provision of health services. We also look at how vaccines can strengthen health systems, both by increasing preparedness and by alleviating pressure on overtaxed systems and medical facilities.

    Health Systems & Integration topics:

    Featured Health Systems & Integration source

    In the Americas, a platform built to secure polio eradication has been expanded to help track, control, prevent and monitor immunization impact for measles and rubella. In India, highly trained polio health workers have become the basis for a trained workforce working towards the elimination of measles and rubella and helping ensure India’s certification by WHO for having eliminated maternal and neonatal tetanus.

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  • Global Issues

    This cross-cutting section examines the linkages between large-scale current issues – such as humanitarian emergencies and antibiotic resistance – and vaccination, and illustrates how vaccination can either work to prevent the escalation of these threats, or to protect critically vulnerable groups from their negative impacts.

    Global Issues topics:

    Featured Global Issues source

    Large measles outbreaks occurred in Lebanon and Jordan, following an influx of Syrian refuges migrating to escape conflict. In Lebanon, the measles incidence increased 200-fold in one year following high migration. There were 2.1 measles cases per million population in Lebanon in 2012; this increased to 411 cases in 2013.

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What's New

VoICE has over 200 evidence summaries!

VoICE contains more than 200 ideas, data summaries, and peer-reviewed scientific articles illustrating the broad value of immunization.

New evidence

We've added new evidence in the following areas:

Topic to highlight

Migration and conflict

Check out our NEW Featured Issue on vaccination during conflict and forced migration. Here, we explore some of the less visible, but critical aspects of immunizations. Immunizations play an important role in emergency settings, considering the threat of malnutrition and antimicrobial resistance, economic pressures, and the urgent need for responsive policies.

Humanitarian emergency refugee setting in Cox's Bazar, depicting tents, makeshift homes, and refugees
Featured Issue

Critical but complex: Vaccination during conflict and forced migration

Conflict and forced migration – resulting in disruption of communities and health systems – amplify the risk factors for infectious disease and increase the urgency of preventive measures such as immunization. While disease outbreaks of measles, cholera, meningitis and even polio in refugee camps may be the most widely covered issues related to immunization in conflict-affected areas and populations, this VoICE Featured Issue explores some of the less-visible, but equally critical aspects. Immunizations play an important role in these settings, considering the threat of malnutrition and antimicrobial resistance, economic pressures, and the urgent need for responsive policies.