The costs and health effects of treating typhoid might soon increase dramatically, since the bacteria that causes typhoid is becoming increasingly resistant to the most effective oral antimicrobial drugs, thus requiring treatment with more expensive intravenous antibiotics which may result in more frequent hospitalizations for suspected typhoid cases.
The first study of the cost-effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccines found that routinely immunizing infants at 9 months of age would actually save costs in 2 settings (Delhi, India and a rural area of Vietnam), due to high incidence or high hospitalization rates, and would be cost-effective in the study’s 3 other sites (in India and Kenya). Adding a one-time catch-up campaign for various older age groups would still save costs in Delhi and Vietnam, and increase the cost-effectiveness in the others, making it economically justifiable.
A study of the impact of typhoid conjugate vaccines in a hypothetical endemic population predicts that the number of antibiotic-resistant typhoid cases will decrease sharply if at least 80% of infants are vaccinated. However, the percent of cases that are resistant is not expected to change with vaccination, thus the disease will have to be nearly eliminated to get rid of all antibiotic resistant typhoid.