Non-Somali children in Kenya in the poorest households were nearly three times as likely to be unvaccinated than children from middle-income households, while wealthier children were significantly less likely to be unvaccinated.
In a Southwest state of Nigeria, children in the poorest category (quintile) of households were 14 times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized, and those in the next poorest category were eight times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized than children in the wealthiest group, after adjusting for factors such as education, religion, and ethnicity.
Children living in urban areas in India were significantly more likely to be only partially immunized compared to children in rural areas. In this study, the authors suggest this may be the result of the tendency for those living in urban slums to move frequently, resulting in only partial immunization. No significant difference was found in rates of non-vaccination (children receiving no vaccines) in rural versus urban communities.