The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Introduction of PCV10 reduced antimicrobial use for acute otitis media, saving healthcare costs and combating antimicrobial resistance

The 2010 introduction of PCV10 for infants in Finland led to an estimated 15% reduction among unvaccinated children in purchases of antimicrobials recommended for acute otitis media (AOM), the most common reason for antimicrobial use in many countries. The indirect effects of PCV10 introduction contribute to health care savings and may also help to combat antimicrobial resistance.

Palmu AA, Rinta-Kokko H, Nohynek H et al.. 2020. Indirect Impact of Ten-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Program on Reducing Antimicrobial Use and Tympanostomy Tube Placements in Finland. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 39(9).

Vaccinating both boys and girls against HPV can eradicate cancer-causing types of the virus

A Swedish-Finnish study conducted between 2007-2014 found that vaccinating both girls and boys against HPV (a gender-neutral vaccination strategy) could lead to the eradication of the most common cancer-causing types of the virus through stronger herd immunity. The study randomized HPV vaccination interventions across 33 towns (gender neutral HPV, girls-only HPV, and a control non-HPV vaccination), including 80,000 adolescents between ages 12 and 15. Results of general HPV screening at the age of 19 showed that gender-neutral vaccination prevented HPV infections much more effectively than vaccinating girls only.

Vänskä S, Luostarinen T, Baussano I et al.. 2020. Vaccination with moderate coverage eradicates oncogenic human papillomaviruses if a gender-neutral strategy is applied. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 222(6).

Introduction of PCV-10 vaccines in Finland reduced invasive pneumococcal disease in unvaccinated children by 33-58%

The rate of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in children too old to be vaccinated (≈1.5 – 10 years old) fell by 33% over a five-year period following the introduction of PCV-10 vaccines in Finland. The rate of IPD caused by serotypes in the vaccine fell by 58% in these children.

Rinta-Kokko H, Palum AA, Auranen K et al.. 2018. Long-term impact of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease among children in Finland. Vaccine. 36(15).

Vaccinating children against pneumonia also reduced ear infections and saved healthcare costs

Over a four-year period following the introduction of PCV-10 in Finland, purchases of antimicrobials that are recommended for the treatment of acute otitis media (middle-ear infection) for children born during these years fell by nearly 18%, compared to pre-vaccine years, and the rate of surgeries to place ear tubes for severe cases fell 15%. Although it is considered a mild disease, acute otitis media caused by pneumococcus is 1,000 times more common in young children than invasive pneumococcal disease, such as pneumonia or meningitis, and thus the public health impact of the vaccine in reducing otitis media cases and in saving health care costs is considerable.

Palmu AA, Rinta-Kokko H, Nohynek H et al.. 2018. Impact of national ten-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine program on reducing antimicrobial use and tympanostomy tube placements in Finland. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 37(1).