The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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The empowerment of women is associated with higher odds of childhood vaccinations

A systematic review of studies from countries in Africa and Southeast Asia investigated the relationship between a woman’s “agency” (defined as the woman’s ability to state her goals and to act upon them with motivation and purpose) and childhood immunizations in lower-income settings. The review found a general pattern among studies in which higher agency among mothers was associated with higher odds of childhood immunizations. Empowering women in these settings shows promise as a means to improve child health.

Thorpe, S., VanderEnde, K., Peters, C., et al.. 2016. The influence of women’s empowerment on child immunisation coverage in low, lower-middle, and upper-middle income countries: a systematic review of the literature.. Maternal and Child Health Journal. 20(1).

Empowering women can lead to greater vaccination rates in children

In a systematic review of qualitative research from low- and middle-income countries, women’s low social status was shown to be a barrier to their children accessing vaccinations. Specific barriers included access to education, income, resource allocation, and autonomous decision-making related to time. The authors suggest that expanding the responsibility for children’s health to both parents (mothers and fathers) may be one important element in removing persistent barriers to immunization often faced by mothers.

Merten, S., Hilber, A.H., Biaggi, C., et al.. 2015. Gender Determinants of Vaccination Status in Children: Evidence from a Meta-Ethnographic Systematic Review.. PloS ONE. 10(8).

Malnourished children are at a greater risk of death from vaccine-preventable diseases

Findings of a systematic review evaluating the relationship between pneumonia and malnourishment found that severely malnourished children in developing countries had 2.5 to 15 times the risk of death. For children with moderate malnutrition, the risk of death ranged from 1.2 to 36.

Chisti, M.J., Tebruegge, M., La Vincente, S., et al.. 2009. Pneumonia in severely malnourished children in developing countries – mortality risk, aetiology and validity of WHO clinical signs: a systematic review. Tropical Medicine and International Health. 14(10).

Vaccines are most cost-effective in low income countries

An analysis of the impact of rotavirus vaccine in 25 countries found that the rates of vaccination in all countries were highest and risk mortality lowest in the top two wealth quintile’s coverage. Countries differed in the relative inequities in these two underlying variables. Cost per DALYs averted in substantially greater in the higher quintiles. In all countries, the greatest potential vaccine benefit was in the poorest quintiles; however, reduced vaccination coverage lowered the projected vaccine benefit.

Rheingans, R., Atherly, D., and Anderson, J.. 2012. Distributional impact of rotavirus vaccination in 25 GAVI countries: Estimating disparities in benefits and cost-effectiveness. Vaccine. 30(1).

Children with mothers who have completed some secondary schooling are more likely to be vaccinated

A study conducted in Eastern Uganda found that Ugandan children whose mothers had some secondary schooling were 50% more likely to have received scheduled vaccinations by 6 months of age than children whose mothers had attended school only through primary level. This effect became more pronounced with delivery of the later doses of each vaccine (OPV2, 3 & DPT-HB-Hib 2,3).

Nankabirwa, V, Tylleskar, T., Tumwine, J., et al.. 2010. Maternal education is associated with vaccination status of infants less than 6 months in Eastern Uganda: a cohort study. BMC Pediatrics. 10(92).