The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Immunization Terms

Integrating family planning and immunization services in Malawi was found to be feasible and beneficial

In this mixed-methods implementation study, routine immunization and family planning services were integrated across health facilities and community sites across two rural districts in Malawi, Dowa and Ntchisi. The total number of women accessing family planning services during the study period increased by 14% while DPT immunization rates for children remained consistent. In interviews, parents and providers found the integration of family planning and immunization services to be feasible and beneficial, indicating a win-win for both services.

Cooper CM, Wille J, Shire S et al.. 2020. Integrated Family Planning and Immunization Service Delivery at Health Facility and Community Sites in Dowa and Ntchisi Districts of Malawi: A Mixed Methods Process Evaluation. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 17(12).

Immunization rates are low among pregnant adolescents in rural areas with less education and lower wealth

The use of antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant adolescents in low- and middle-income countries, including tetanus toxoid vaccination, was lowest among women who lived in rural areas, had completed less education, and who were of poorer wealth quintiles.

Banke-Thomas OE, Banke-Thomas AO, Ameh CA. 2017. Factors influencing ultilisation of maternal health services by adolescent mothers in Low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 17(1).

Immunization can prevent tetanus and its severe consequences, including death and cognitive impairment in children

The risk of mortality from tetanus is high for mothers and their newborns, and up to 50% of children who do survive neonatal tetanus may have long-term cognitive impairment, according to a 2007 review.

Roper MH, Vandelaer JH, Gasse FL. 2007. Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus. Lancet. 370(9603).

The arrival of Syrian refugees in Turkey has caused a rise in infectious diseases, including preventable ones like measles

Forced migration due to the Syrian civil war has led to a re-emergence of several infectious diseases in Turkey, including vaccine-preventable diseases, such as measles (930 cases reported among refugees over 4 years), tuberculosis and hepatitis A.

Doyanay M, Demiraslan H. 2016. Refugees of the Syrian civil war: impact on reemerging infections, health services, and biosecurity in Turkey. Health Security. 14(4).

Immunization rates increase when Ethiopian mothers receive maternal health services

Ethiopian mothers use of any of three maternal health services — antenatal care, delivery services, or tetanus vaccination — significantly increased the likelihood of their children being fully immunized by 12-23 months of age. Therefore, national immunization initiatives should concentrate on improving access of pregnant women to these key maternal health services.

Regassa N, Bird Y, Moraros J. 2019. Preference in the use of full childhood immunizations in Ethiopia: The role of maternal health services. Patient Preference and Adherence. 13.

Travel distance can become a barrier to vaccine access for women seeking neonatal care

An study using GIS to quantify the percent of pregnant women in Mozambique without access to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine at varying distances from health facilities estimated that if women cannot travel more than 5 km to a TT immunization site there will be almost 18,000 neonatal tetanus cases each year that could be prevented, costing the country more than US$362 million in treatment costs and lost productivity. Covering 99% of women with TT will currently require people to travel up to 35 km to obtain an immunization.

Haidari LA, Brown ST, Constenla D et al.. 2016. The economic value of increasing geospatial access to tetanus toxoid immunization in Mozambique. Vaccine. 34(35).

Socioeconomic factors affect vaccination rates, highlighting the need for targeted vaccine programs in different settings

In Tanzania, wealth and mother’s education are significant predictors of vaccination rates in both urban and rural settings. However, low paternal education, lack of antenatal care, and home births were significantly associated with low vaccination rates only in rural settings. This suggests the need for tailored vaccine programs.

Nadella, P., Smith, E.R., Muhihi, A., et al.. 2019. Determinants of delayed or incomplete diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccination in parallel urban and rural birth cohorts of 30,956 infants in Tanzania.. BMC Infectious Diseases. 19(188).

Integrated community health interventions targeting high-risk populations can improve maternal and child health outcomes

Through use of local Maternal Child Health (MCH) incentives, along with the use of locally appointed Health Activists, India’s National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) multiple-strategy community intervention program was able to achieve household level improvements reflected as an increase in all of the following indicators for women and children over the 7 year program:
– the proportion of pregnant women having 3 or more ante-natal check-ups (from 43% to 74.5%)
– those receiving at least one Tetanus Toxoid injection (from 83.5% to 93.6%)
– institutional deliveries (from 35.7% to 77%)
– post-natal check-ups within 2 weeks of delivery (from 49% to 67.2%) and
– children who received ORS for diarrhea from (32.3% to 44.8%).

Gupta, M., Angeli, F., Bosma, H., et al.. 2016. Effectiveness of Multiple-Strategy Community Intervention in Reducing Geographical, Socioeconomic, and Gender Based Inequalities in Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Haryana, India.. PLoS ONE. 11(3).

Integrated community health interventions targeting underserved populations can lead to reductions in socioeconomic inequalities

In India, a multi-strategy community intervention, the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) was successful in reducing disparities between pregnant women who had an institutional delivery in urban and rural areas. Geographic inequities reduced from 22% to 7.6% and socioeconomic disparities declined from 48.2% to 13%. Post the NRHM period, the difference between the number of children with full vaccination i.e., Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine for tuberculosis, 3 doses of Diphtheria Pertussis and Tetanus vaccine (DTP), 3 doses of Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV), and measles vaccine, in urban and rural areas was observed to be non-significant.

Gupta, M., Angeli, F., Bosma, H., et al.. 2016. Effectiveness of Multiple-Strategy Community Intervention in Reducing Geographical, Socioeconomic, and Gender Based Inequalities in Maternal and Child Health Outcomes in Haryana, India.. PLoS ONE. 11(3).

Poverty negatively affects the timing of vaccines given to children

In Tanzania, poverty was found to have a negative effect on receiving vaccines on time (at the recommended age). Children in the wealthiest quintile experienced 19% fewer delays for BCG vaccination, 23% fewer delays for the third dose of DTP vaccination, and 31% fewer delays for the first dose of measles-containing vaccine compared to children of the poorest quintile.

Le Polain de Waroux, O., Schellenberg, J.R., Manzi, F., et al.. 2013. Timeliness and completeness of vaccination and risk factors for low and late vaccine uptake in young children living in rural southern Tanzania.. International Health. 5(2).