The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


Diseases & Vaccines


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Immunization Terms

Immunization can prevent the rising costs and health effects of treating drug-resistant typhoid infections

The costs and health effects of treating typhoid might soon increase dramatically, since the bacteria that causes typhoid is becoming increasingly resistant to the most effective oral antimicrobial drugs, thus requiring treatment with more expensive intravenous antibiotics which may result in more frequent hospitalizations for suspected typhoid cases.

Andrews JR, Baker S, Marks F et al.. 2019. Typhoid conjugate vaccines: a new tool in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Lancet Infectious Disease. 19(1).

Immunizing infants and older age groups against typhoid can save costs and be economically justifiable

The first study of the cost-effectiveness of typhoid conjugate vaccines found that routinely immunizing infants at 9 months of age would actually save costs in 2 settings (Delhi, India and a rural area of Vietnam), due to high incidence or high hospitalization rates, and would be cost-effective in the study’s 3 other sites (in India and Kenya). Adding a one-time catch-up campaign for various older age groups would still save costs in Delhi and Vietnam, and increase the cost-effectiveness in the others, making it economically justifiable.

Antillon M, Bilcke J, Paltiel AD, Pitzer VE. 2017. Cost-effectiveness analysis of typhoid conjugate vaccines in five endemic low- and middle-income settings. Vaccine. 35.

Immunizing infants against typhoid can sharply reduce antibiotic-resistant cases

A study of the impact of typhoid conjugate vaccines in a hypothetical endemic population predicts that the number of antibiotic-resistant typhoid cases will decrease sharply if at least 80% of infants are vaccinated. However, the percent of cases that are resistant is not expected to change with vaccination, thus the disease will have to be nearly eliminated to get rid of all antibiotic resistant typhoid.

Kaufhold S, Yaesoubi R, Pitzer VE. 2019. Predicting the impact of typhoid conjugate vaccines on antimicrobial resistance. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 68(2).