The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Children from poor households in Kenya are less likely to be vaccinated compared to wealthier children

Non-Somali children in Kenya in the poorest households were nearly three times as likely to be unvaccinated than children from middle-income households, while wealthier children were significantly less likely to be unvaccinated.

Masters NB, Wagner AL, Carlson BF et al.. 2019. Childhood vaccination in Kenya: Socioeconomic determinants and disparities among the Somali ethnic community. International Journal of Public Health. 64(3).

Children from the poorest households in Nigeria are less likely to be immunized than those from wealthier households

In a Southwest state of Nigeria, children in the poorest category (quintile) of households were 14 times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized, and those in the next poorest category were eight times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized than children in the wealthiest group, after adjusting for factors such as education, religion, and ethnicity.

Ijarotimi IT, Fatiregun AA, Adebiyi OA et al. 2018. Urban-rural differences in immunization status and associated demographic factors among children 12-59 months in a southwestern state, Nigeria. PLoS One. 13(11).

Children living in urban slums may be more likely to miss immunizations due to frequent moves

Children living in urban areas in India were significantly more likely to be only partially immunized compared to children in rural areas. In this study, the authors suggest this may be the result of the tendency for those living in urban slums to move frequently, resulting in only partial immunization. No significant difference was found in rates of non-vaccination (children receiving no vaccines) in rural versus urban communities.

Prinja, S., Monga, D., Rana, S.K., et al.. 2018. District level analysis of routine immunization in Haryana State: implications for Mission Indradhanush under Universal Immunization Programme. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 43(3).