Healthcare workers who received an influenza vaccine missed fewer days of work compared to non-vaccinated peers (1.74 vs 2.71 days/person). The study took place at a large Italian hospital that employed approximately 5,300 healthcare workers. The researchers examined a severe influenza season (2017/2018) as well as three moderate flu seasons (2010-2013).
In patients with diabetes, influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and death from acute myocardial infarction (heart attacks) or stroke. The analysis included medical records from 241,551 adult patients in Denmark across nine consecutive influenza seasons (2007 to 2016). Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for being admitted to the hospital with diabetes-related complications, like diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, or coma.
The 2010 introduction of PCV10 for infants in Finland led to an estimated 15% reduction among unvaccinated children in purchases of antimicrobials recommended for acute otitis media (AOM), the most common reason for antimicrobial use in many countries. The indirect effects of PCV10 introduction contribute to health care savings and may also help to combat antimicrobial resistance.
In a retrospective cohort study among healthcare workers (HCWs) of an Italian academic healthcare trust during the 2017–2018 influenza season, non-vaccinated HCWs lost 2.47/100 person-days of work compared to 1.92/100 person-days of work among vaccinated HCWs (p < 0.001). This adds further evidence that absenteeism among HCWs is negatively correlated with influenza vaccination.
A modelling simulation study in Germany found that routine influenza vaccination coverage of 55% in children of 6 months to 17 years indirectly reduces influenza infections by 26% in the general population through pronounced herd effects. The study authors conclude that targeting children in influenza vaccination campaigns may not only reduce their individual disease burden, but also that of non-vaccinated individuals.
A Swedish-Finnish study conducted between 2007-2014 found that vaccinating both girls and boys against HPV (a gender-neutral vaccination strategy) could lead to the eradication of the most common cancer-causing types of the virus through stronger herd immunity. The study randomized HPV vaccination interventions across 33 towns (gender neutral HPV, girls-only HPV, and a control non-HPV vaccination), including 80,000 adolescents between ages 12 and 15. Results of general HPV screening at the age of 19 showed that gender-neutral vaccination prevented HPV infections much more effectively than vaccinating girls only.
During the 2009 UK influenza A H1N1 pandemic, pregnant women who contracted influenza were five times more likely to have perinatal mortality (stillbirths) and three times more likely to have a preterm delivery, than were pregnant women who did not contract the virus.
Seizures are the most common non-gastrointestinal symptom associated with rotavirus infection. Studies have found that rotavirus vaccination significantly reduced the risk of childhood seizures during the year following vaccination by approximately 20% for seizures requiring emergency care or hospitalization in the US and by 16-34% for childhood seizures requiring hospitalization in Spain.
Following the introduction of PCV7 and later PCV13 in Madrid, Spain, there was a 70% reduction in the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children less than 15 years of age. There was also a pronounced decline in the percentages of penicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant strains of the pneumococcus bacteria. After PCV13 was introduced in 2010, cefotaxime resistance among meningitis patients completely disappeared and both cefotaxime and penicillin resistance among non-meningitis cases declined to very low levels (<3%).
Screening tests given to more than 300 newly-arrived economic migrants and asylum seekers in Italy — the majority from sub-Saharan Africa — found high rates of chronic hepatitis B infection and latent and active tuberculosis (with 8% having signs of current infection or active TB). These findings underscore the important of universal screening for infectious diseases for all newly-arrived migrants.