A pooled analysis of three randomized controlled trials conducted in Nepal, Mali, and South Africa between 2011 and 2014 found that immunization during pregnancy provided protection against influenza to young infants from birth through 4 months of age. Protection against infant influenza was greatest in the first 2 months of life, with 56% efficacy, and the pooled efficacy of maternal vaccination to prevent infant laboratory-confirmed influenza up to 6 months of age was 35%.
In a cohort study of 4,877 children using data from the India Human Development Survey, full vaccination was estimated to increase basic reading, writing and math achievements by 6-12% in children 8-11 years old. These results support the hypothesis that vaccination has lasting effects on children’s learning achievements.
A large measles outbreak of 1,700 cases occurred in the Rohingya refugee population in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh in 2017. In response, two reactive vaccination campaigns delivered the measles and rubella (MR) vaccine to children aged 6 months to 15 years old. This modeling study found that these reactive vaccination campaigns rapidly curbed outbreak transmission, averting an estimated 77,000 measles cases in the refugee camp. This demonstrates that reactive vaccination campaigns can be highly effective in preventing large measles outbreaks in the context of refugee camps, even when prior vaccination rates are low.
In an analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults, a subgroup analysis found a strong positive association between UIP implementation and increased school attainment for women. Women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages. Thus, the researchers concluded that the UIP is also likely to improve the economic status of women in India.
An analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults found that women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages.
Adults who were born after the implementation of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) attained 0.18–0.29 additional grades of schooling compared to adults born before the UIP was implemented in their district of residence. According to the researchers, these findings indicate that childhood immunization could improve adult schooling attainment in India by as much as 10%.
The use of antenatal care (ANC) services among pregnant adolescents in low- and middle-income countries, including tetanus toxoid vaccination, was lowest among women who lived in rural areas, had completed less education, and who were of poorer wealth quintiles.
Pregnant women in Bangladesh who received the influenza vaccine had elevated levels of anti-influenza antibody in their breast milk. The infants of mothers who received the vaccine during pregnancy had fewer episodes of respiratory illness with fever than the infants of mothers who did not receive the influenza vaccine during pregnancy. Further, exclusive breastfeeding was found to have a protective effect against respiratory illness with fever in infants.
The breastmilk of mothers in Bangladesh who received the meningococcal vaccine during pregnancy had anti-meningococcal antibody levels at 3-6 months after delivery of four to five times higher than that of mothers who did not receive the vaccine.
Although this study was published in 2002, the data on this topic are sparse as it is methodologically difficult to conduct studies to evaluate the relationship between anti-meningococcal antibodies in breastmilk and protection.
An analysis of the potential impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) in India found that introducing PCV vaccine will protect the population from potentially catastrophic health expenditures due to treatment and hospitalizations for pneumococcal disease – saving an estimated $49-63 million in out-of-pocket expenditures each year, depending on the assumed vaccination coverage rate. Financial protection will be greatest for the poorest households, with the poorest quintile is estimated to have the greatest savings in out-of-pocket expenditures of all wealth quintiles.