Immunization with PCV10 in Mozambique reduced pneumococcal carriage rates in both HIV-infected and uninfected children

Within two years of the introduction of PCV10 in Mozambique, the percent of vaccinated children under five years of age with nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine strains, declined equally in HIV-infected as in HIV-uninfected children. The vaccine-type carriage rates among both HIV-infected and uninfected vaccinated children after the vaccine was introduced were similar.

Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage can be a precursor of invasive pneumococcal disease.

Travel distance can become a barrier to vaccine access for women seeking neonatal care

An study using GIS to quantify the percent of pregnant women in Mozambique without access to tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine at varying distances from health facilities estimated that if women cannot travel more than 5 km to a TT immunization site there will be almost 18,000 neonatal tetanus cases each year that could be prevented, costing the country more than US$362 million in treatment costs and lost productivity. Covering 99% of women with TT will currently require people to travel up to 35 km to obtain an immunization.

Empowering women can lead to greater vaccination rates in children

In a systematic review of qualitative research from low- and middle-income countries, women’s low social status was shown to be a barrier to their children accessing vaccinations. Specific barriers included access to education, income, resource allocation, and autonomous decision-making related to time. The authors suggest that expanding the responsibility for children’s health to both parents (mothers and fathers) may be one important element in removing persistent barriers to immunization often faced by mothers.

Vaccines are most cost-effective in low income countries

An analysis of the impact of rotavirus vaccine in 25 countries found that the rates of vaccination in all countries were highest and risk mortality lowest in the top two wealth quintile’s coverage. Countries differed in the relative inequities in these two underlying variables. Cost per DALYs averted in substantially greater in the higher quintiles. In all countries, the greatest potential vaccine benefit was in the poorest quintiles; however, reduced vaccination coverage lowered the projected vaccine benefit.

Vaccine-preventable diarrhea is linked to poor growth

A prospective case-control study conducted in several developing countries found that children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea grew significantly less in length in the two months following their episode compared to age- and gender-matched controls.