The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Influenza vaccination in patients with diabetes reduces the risk of death and complications

In patients with diabetes, influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of all-cause death, cardiovascular death, and death from acute myocardial infarction (heart attacks) or stroke. The analysis included medical records from 241,551 adult patients in Denmark across nine consecutive influenza seasons (2007 to 2016). Influenza vaccination was associated with a reduced risk for being admitted to the hospital with diabetes-related complications, like diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, or coma.

Modin D, Claggett B, Køber L et al.. 2020. Influenza Vaccination Is Associated With Reduced Cardiovascular Mortality in Adults With Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Diabetes Care. 43(9).

Immunization can prevent long-term effects of meningococcal disease, such as hearing loss and psychological problems

A systematic literature review of studies of the long-term effects of invasive meningococcal disease in high-income countries found that children who survived the disease had a greater incidence of hearing loss and psychological problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than control groups or the general population. In addition, they had increased odds of death – one study showed more than a 25% greater mortality rate in this population than did the general public up to 30 years after having the disease.

Strifler L, Morris SK, Dang V et al.. 2016. The health burden of invasive meningococcal disease: a systematic review. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 5(4).

Refugee girls in Denmark have lower HPV vaccination rates, highlighting the need to address barriers and improve immunization programs

Girls from refugee families in Denmark were 40-56% less likely to receive HPV vaccine through 2 free-of-charge immunization programs than Danish-born girls, and the differences remained significant when income was taken into account. The odds of being vaccinated were lowest for refugees in the country ≤5 years and those from certain countries or regions, indicating the need to reduce cultural, social, and information barriers to immunization, as well as assess immunization programs across increasingly ethnically diverse societies.

Moller SP, Kristiansen M, Norredam M. 2018. Human papillomavirus immunization uptake among girls with a refugee background compared with Danish-born girls: A national register-based cohort study. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 27(1).

Many asylum-seeking children have missed key vaccinations, highlighting the need for targeted initiatives to improve immunization rates

Nearly one-third of children and adolescents seeking asylum in Denmark were not adequately vaccinated upon their arrival. This points to the need for initiatives targeted to this population to promote immunization and improve access to health services.

Nakken CS, Skovdal M, Nellums LB et al.. 2018. Vaccination status and needs to asylum seeking children in Denmark: A retrospective data analysis. Public Health. 158.

Measles infection suppresses the immune system for up to 3 years after infection

In a study of data from England & Wales, Denmark, and the US, it was shown that measles infection suppresses the immune system for up to 3 years after infection, increasing the risk of death due to other childhood infections during that time. This means that prevention of measles significantly impacts overall health during critical childhood years.

Mina, M.J., Metcalf, C.J. de Swart, R.L., et al. 2015. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality. Science. 348(6235).