The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


Diseases & Vaccines


WHO Regions


Immunization Terms

Immunization can prevent long-term effects of meningococcal disease, such as hearing loss and psychological problems

A systematic literature review of studies of the long-term effects of invasive meningococcal disease in high-income countries found that children who survived the disease had a greater incidence of hearing loss and psychological problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than control groups or the general population. In addition, they had increased odds of death – one study showed more than a 25% greater mortality rate in this population than did the general public up to 30 years after having the disease.

Strifler L, Morris SK, Dang V et al.. 2016. The health burden of invasive meningococcal disease: a systematic review. Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. 5(4).

Measles outbreaks can countries cost millions, highlighting the importance of immunization

A large measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-14 resulted in 2700 cases of disease and cost an estimated US$4.7 million — or US$1,739 per case. Costs included outbreak response (including vaccination and enhanced surveillance), the cost of treatment (primarily hospitalizations), and the loss of productivity among caregivers ($365,000, less than 8% of total costs). Due to the likely under-reporting of the disease, the actual costs could be nearly 20% greater ($5.6 million).

Suijkerbuijk AWM, Wondenberg T, Hahne SJM et al.. 2015. Economic costs of measles outbreak in the Netherlands, 2013-2014. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 21(11).

The greatest cost savings come from the scaling up of preventative immunization

Considering both the direct and indirect costs, researchers in the Netherlands estimated that the preventative immunization of Dutch healthcare workers (HCW) against pertussis (to reduce exposure and transmission contributing to outbreaks) results in a return on investment of 4 Euros to every 1 euro invested. This projection assumes an outbreak of pertussis once every 10 years.

Tariq, L., Mangen, M. J., Hövels, A.,. 2015. Modelling the return on investment of preventatively vaccinating healthcare workers against pertussis. BMC Infectious Disease. 15(1).