The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Immunization in India’s Universal Immunization Program improves schooling attainment and economic status for women

In an analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults, a subgroup analysis found a strong positive association between UIP implementation and increased school attainment for women. Women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages. Thus, the researchers concluded that the UIP is also likely to improve the economic status of women in India.

Nandi A, Kumar S, Shet A et al.. 2020. Childhood vaccinations and adult schooling attainment: Long-term evidence from India’s Universal Immunization Programme. Social Science & Medicine. 250.

Children of mothers with no education or primary education are more likely to have delayed vaccinations

A study of delayed vaccination in India found that children whose mothers had no formal education were 37-81% more likely to have delayed vaccinations than children of mothers with 12 or more years of schooling [depending on the vaccine]. Children whose mothers had a primary school eduction fared only slightly better with 33-62% greater odds of getting their vaccination late, when compared to those with highly educated mothers.

Data in this analysis was from the National Family and Health Survey 4.

Choudhary TS, Reddy NS, Apte A et al.. 2019. Delayed vaccination and its predictors among children under 2 years in India: Insights from the national family survey-4. Vaccine. 37(17).

Children in Pakistan with educated parents are more likely to receive timely immunizations

In a large survey in Pakistan, children were about 30% more likely to receive all the national immunization program vaccinations on time if either their mother or father had a secondary school or higher level of education than those whose mothers or fathers had no formal education.

Noh JW, Kim YM, Akram N et al.. 2018. Factors affecting complete and timely childhood immunization coverage in Sindh, Pakistan: A secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data. PLoS One. 13(10).

Children whose mothers have secondary education or higher are more likely to be fully immunized

Children of mothers with secondary education or higher were significantly more likely to be fully immunized than children of mothers with lower levels of educational attainment.

Acharya P., Kismul H., Mapatano, M.A., et al.. 2018. Individual- and Community-level Determinants of Child Immunization in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Multilevel Analysis. PLOS One. 13(8).

Children in communities with higher literacy rates are more likely to be fully immunized

Nigerian Demographic Health Survey data suggests that community literacy influences immunization status. Children in communities with low levels of illiteracy were 82% less likely to be fully immunized than children in communities with medium levels of illiteracy.

Antai, D. 2012. Gender inequities, relationship power, and childhood immunization uptake in Nigeria: a population-based cross-sectional study. Journal of Infectious Disease. 16(2).

Children of uneducated mothers may be at greater risk of death than children of educated mothers

Across many South Asian and sub-Saharan African countries, children of mothers who received no formal education were nearly 3 times as likely to die before reaching age 5 as those born to mothers with some secondary education.

UNICEF. 2015. Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, Progress Report 2015. . .