Globally, immunization has a high return on investment saving billions of dollars by preventing disability, health costs, and premature deaths

By preventing illness, disability, premature death, lost wages, and other costs, this modeling study found that vaccines against ten pathogens averted $828.5 billion of economic burden in 94 low- and middle-income countries between 2021 and 2030. Immunization programs provided a high return on investment (ROI), with projections for net benefits of vaccine programs estimated at $1,445.3 billion (using a cost-of-illness approach) and $3,371.5 billion (using a value-of-a-statistical-life approach) from 2011 to 2030. For every $1 invested in immunization, there was a return on investment of $20 using cost-of-illness and $52 using a value-of-a-statistical-life approach.

Immunizing children against rotavirus in Palestine can save money and prevent severe cases of gastroenteritis

An economic analysis in Palestine found that including rotavirus in the routine immunization program is a cost-effective intervention in children under 5 years old. The study estimated that between 2016–2025, rotavirus vaccination in Palestine has the potential to avert approximately 101,000 severe episodes of rotavirus gastroenteritis cases. Avoiding these treatment costs could lead to estimated savings of approximately $14 million for the health system and approximately $22 million for the society (in 2018 US dollars).

Rotavirus vaccination saves money and prevents millions of cases, hospitalizations, and deaths

This study provided an updated model of the cost-effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination in children younger than 5 years across 73 countries previously or currently eligible for Gavi support. The researchers found evidence that rotavirus vaccination is still a cost-effective investment in Gavi countries, projected to save approximately $484 million (around $48 million per year) from the government perspective and $878 million (around $90 million per year) from the societal perspective between 2018 and 2027, by preventing 158.6 million cases of rotavirus gastroenteritis, 80.7 million outpatient visits, 7.9 million hospitalizations, 14.7 million Disability-Adjusted Life Years, and nearly 600,000 deaths.

Immunization against rotavirus is cost-effective, especially in poorer regions, saving lives and reducing disabilities

According to a cost-effectiveness study of rotavirus vaccination in Pakistan, the vaccine would be the most cost-effective in the poorer provinces of Sindh and Balochistan (that also have the highest rates of death from rotavirus)- with a cost per disability-adjust life year averted $155-$167 compared to almost $600 in the wealthier region of Islamabad. Within all regions, vaccination was the most cost-effective among the two poorest income groups (quintiles), and was almost 12 times more cost-effective in the poorest households in the most marginalized region than in the wealthiest households in the most advantaged region (cost/DALY averted of $76 vs. $897).

Expanding rotavirus vaccination coverage in Pakistan would greatly reduce deaths, especially among the poorest children

A cost-effectiveness analysis of rotavirus vaccination in Pakistan found that, if rotavirus vaccination coverage was equally high across regions and income groups, the percent reduction in deaths due to rotavirus would be 4 times greater in the highest risk regions than in the lowest-risk regions, and would be 3-4 times greater among children in the poorest versus the wealthiest households.

Expanding vaccination coverage among the poorest and most vulnerable children would substantially increase the overall impact of rotavirus immunization in Pakistan.

Immunization saves money by preventing complications and long-term health issues like hearing loss

An analysis of current measles vaccination program in the eastern Chinese province of Zhejiang (which provides 1 dose of measles-rubella vaccine at 8 months of age and 1 dose of MMR at 18 months) estimated that, for every dollar spent on immunization, the health system saves $6.06 in treatment costing, including the costs of treating complications and long-term sequelae, such as hearing loss.

Immunizing infants with pneumococcal vaccines saves billions of dollars in treatment and societal costs worldwide

Vaccination of infants with pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in 180, from the health system perspective, would save an estimated $3.2 billion per year worldwide in treatment costs and an additional $2.6 billion in societal costs (from reduced missed work and out-of-pocket expenditures)- for a total of $5.8 billion. These savings would partially offset the estimated global cost of vaccination of $15.5 billion per year.

The cost estimates were calculated in international dollars.

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are cost-effective in low income regions and can save lives globally

In an analysis of the impact and cost-effectiveness of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) in preventing disease and deaths in children under five years in 180 countries, the vaccination was most cost-effective in low income regions and Gavi-eligible countries. The average cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY) was $118 in Africa, $853 in Asia, and $16,000 in Europe. PCV introduction throughout Africa would account for nearly 70% of lives saved globally, but requires only 12% of the global investment.

The cost estimates were calculated in international dollars.