Children from the poorest households in Nigeria are less likely to be immunized than those from wealthier households

In a Southwest state of Nigeria, children in the poorest category (quintile) of households were 14 times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized, and those in the next poorest category were eight times more likely to be partially immunized or not immunized than children in the wealthiest group, after adjusting for factors such as education, religion, and ethnicity.

North Korean refugee children in China have low vaccination rates due to lack of legal status

Children born to North Korean refugee women in China have much lower vaccination rates than local Chinese or migrant children — with full immunization rates of 14% compared to 93% for local ethnic Chinese children and 55% for migrant children. While all ethnic Chinese children are registered and provided with free vaccinations and there are specific programs targeting migrant children, children born to Korean refugees have no legal status and are thus excluded from the public health care system.

Educating women can help increase infant immunization rates in Kenya

Data from the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey show that women with a primary school education were 2 to 5 times more likely to have their infants vaccinated (depending on the vaccine) and women with a secondary school education were 2.5 to 9 times more likely to have their infants vaccinated than mothers with less than a primary education or no education [after adjusting for wealth, age, religion and other variables].

Children of migrant laborers may have lower vaccination rates compared to the general population, increasing their risk of preventable diseases

A study found that children of poor labor migrants living in Delhi, India are much less likely to be fully vaccinated than the general population and thus are at greater risk of vaccine-preventable diseases. Only 31% – 53% of children from migrant families were fully immunized (against 7 diseases) by 12 months of age, compared to 72% in the overall population of Delhi — with recent migrants having the lowest rates. There is therefore a need to focus on the delivery of health services to migrants.

Marginalized populations derive the most benefit from immunization against rotavirus

Children in the poorest 20% of households in Laos have a 4-5 times greater risk of dying from rotavirus than the richest 20%. Consequently, rotavirus vaccination was almost five times more cost-effective in the lowest income groups in the Central Region than in the richest households in the wealthier North region. Thus, rotavirus vaccination has a greater potential for health gains and greater cost-effectiveness among marginalized populations.

Children living in urban slums may be more likely to miss immunizations due to frequent moves

Children living in urban areas in India were significantly more likely to be only partially immunized compared to children in rural areas. In this study, the authors suggest this may be the result of the tendency for those living in urban slums to move frequently, resulting in only partial immunization. No significant difference was found in rates of non-vaccination (children receiving no vaccines) in rural versus urban communities.