The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


Diseases & Vaccines


WHO Regions


Immunization Terms

Children living in slums suffer from higher rates of diarrheal and respiratory illness

Children in slums suffer from higher rates of diarrheal and respiratory illness, malnutrition, and have lower vaccination rates. Mothers residing in slums are more poorly educated and less likely to receive antenatal care and skilled birth assistance.

Unger, A.. 2013. Children’s health in slum settings. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 98(10).

Conflict can impact health systems, compromising disease elimination goals

Conflict in the Eastern Mediterranean Region impacted health infrastructure and compromised the success of the region’s measles elimination goal. At the same time that rates of migration and displacement skyrocketed, the number of measles cases in the region doubled, from 10,072 cases in 2010 to 20,898 in 2015.

Teleb N. and Hajjej R.. 2017. Vaccine preventable diseases and immunization during humanitarian emergencies: challenges and lessons learned from the Eastern Mediterranean Region. East Mediterr Health J.. 22(11).

Correctional facilities can provide access to health services for incarcerated adolescents at risk of hepatitis B

Studies have indicated that the prevalence of risky behaviors associated with Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and HIV is high among incarcerated adolescents. In the US, most adolescents sentenced to serve time in correctional facilities are offered preventive vaccination against hepatitis B. Medical clinics in correctional facilities provide an ideal environment for adolescents in high risk settings to obtain access to preventive health services. In certain cases, these facilities even overcome barriers such as parental consent by making these adolescents wards of the state and followed by which preventive services are obtained by the state providing consent.

Tedeschi, S.K., Bonney, L.E., Manalo, R., et al.. 2007. Vaccination in juvenile correctional facilities: state practices, hepatitis B, and the impact on anticipated sexually transmitted infection vaccines. Public Health Rep. 122(1).

Cholera outbreaks can cause millions of dollars in economic impacts

A study of a cholera outbreak in Peru in 1991-92 estimates that the national economy conservatively suffered more than US$50 million in economic losses due to reduced tourism revenue, reduced revenue on export of goods and lower domestic consumption as a result of the outbreak of cholera.

Suarez, R. and Bradford, B.. 1993. The economic impact of the cholera epidemic in Peru: An application of the cost of illness methodology. Office of Health, Bureau for Research and Development, Water and Sanitation for Health (WASH) Project. Field Report. 415.

Bacterial meningitis is associated with long-term neurophysiological impacts

A systematic literature review analyzing data from 21 African countries revealed that bacterial meningitis is associated with high case fatality and frequent neurophysiological sequelae. Pneumococcal and Hib meningitis contribute to one third of disease related mortality. They also cause clinically evident sequalae in 25% of survivors prior to hospital discharge. The three main causes of bacterial meningitis- Haemophilus influenzae type B; Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are vaccine preventable, routine use of conjugate vaccines have potential for significant health and economic benefits.

Neuropsychological sequelae includes hearing loss, vision loss, cognitive delay, speech/language disorder, behavioural problems, motor delays/impairment, and seizures.

Ramakrishnan, M., Ulland, A.J., Steinhardt, L.C., et al. 2009. Sequelae due to bacterial meningitis among African children: a systematic literature review. BMC Medicine. 7(47).

Childhood vaccination against Hepatitis A is cost-effective

In Argentina, universal vaccination for Hepatitis A in children, at 95% vaccine coverage, can prevent over 350,000 hepatitis A infections per year and 428 deaths. Benefits persist at coverage rates as low as 70% with over 290,000 prevented infections. At 95% coverage rates, this program would save almost $24,000 annually.

Lopez, E., Debbag, R., Coudeville, L., et al. 2007. The cost-effectiveness of universal vaccination of children against hepatitis A in Argentina: results of a dynamic health-economic analysis. Journal of Gastroenterology. 42(2).

Children of mothers vaccinated for tetanus and cholera attain more education

In 1996, a follow-up study was conducted on a 1974 randomized trial of tetanus and cholera vaccine administered to mothers. At the time of follow up in 1996, there was a clear pattern of increased educational attainment among children whose mothers received tetanus vaccine during pregnancy. This pattern was significant for the group of children born to vaccinated mothers with very low levels of education.

Canning, D., Razzaque, A., Driessen, J., et al. 2011. The effect of maternal tetanus immunization on children’s schooling attainment in Matlab, Bangladesh: Follow-up of a randomized trial. Social Science and Medicine. 72(9).

Immunization provides a key opportunity to control disease outbreaks globally

The latest International Health Regulations (IHR) of the World Health Organization updated in 2005 contained several major changes compared to earlier versions. However, the need to report cases of cholera and yellow fever has remained along with an expansion of the concerned disease list. These diseases continue to be critical threats to national and international health security, making immunization against them a vital disease control approach.

Andrus, J.K., Aguilera, X., Oliva, O., et al. 2010. Global health security and the International Health Regulations. BMC Public Health. 10(1).

Funding a national pneumonia vaccine program increased vaccine coverage among the elderly

A publicly funded 23vPPV (23 valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine) program in Victoria, Australia not only dramatically increased vaccination coverage among the elderly in the public purchase program, but in other Australian states and territories that did not have a public program, the number of prescriptions issued for 23vPPV actually increased over the same period.

Andrews, R.M.. 2005. Assessment of vaccine coverage following the introduction of a publicly funded pneumococcal vaccine program for the elderly in Victoria, Australia. Vaccine. 23(21).