The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


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Immunization with PCV10 in Mozambique reduced pneumococcal carriage rates in both HIV-infected and uninfected children

Within two years of the introduction of PCV10 in Mozambique, the percent of vaccinated children under five years of age with nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine strains, declined equally in HIV-infected as in HIV-uninfected children. The vaccine-type carriage rates among both HIV-infected and uninfected vaccinated children after the vaccine was introduced were similar.

Pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage can be a precursor of invasive pneumococcal disease.

Sigauque B, Moiane B, Massora S et al.. 2018. Early declines in vaccine type pneumococcal carriage in children less than 5 years old after introduction of 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in Mozambique. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal. 37(10).

HIV-exposed infants are more vulnerable to measles due to lower levels of antibodies

A small hospital-based study in India found that 6 month old infants born to HIV-infected women were 11 times more likely to lack measles antibodies than 6 month olds not exposed to HIV whether or not the exposed infants were themselves infected with HIV. The lack of antibodies in most HIV-exposed infants — making them more vulnerable to measles — may be due to lower levels of measles antibodies in HIV-infected mothers or to poorer transfer of antibodies to the fetus across the placenta.

Jain S, Seth A, Khare S et al.. 2017. Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 145(4).

Immunization with PCV reduced the risk of pneumococcal pneumonia in HIV-positive adults in Kenya

Prior to the introduction of PCV, adults with HIV in a rural area of Kenya were nearly five times more likely to have pneumococcal pneumonia than non-infected adults, and the majority of cases with bacteremia (blood infection) occurred in HIV positive individuals.

Bigogo GM, Audi A, Auko J et al.. 2019. Indirect effects of 10-Valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against adult pneumococcal pneumonia in rural western Kenya. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 69(12).

Children who are HIV-positive significantly benefit from protection conferred by PCV

A large randomized controlled trial of a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in South Africa found that use of the vaccine prevented 10 times as many cases of pneumococcal pneumonia in HIV positive children than in HIV negative children.

Madhi, S.A., Kuwanda, L., Cutland, C., et al.. 2005. The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Clinical Infectious Disease. 40(10).