The Knowledge Hub

What is the Knowledge Hub?

Explore the VoICE Knowledge Hub—a searchable database featuring the latest peer-reviewed research on immunization benefits, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Browse the Knowledge Hub using a variety of different filters to find vaccine evidence based on country, region, topic, or disease. Click on a tag to find more evidence on a specific area, such as the return on investment of vaccines or impacts of infectious disease outbreaks.


Diseases & Vaccines


WHO Regions


Immunization Terms

Immunization against influenza and pneumococcus can reduce healthcare visits and antibiotic use, improving overall health

This systematic review suggests that vaccination against influenza and pneumococcus can reduce overall healthcare visits and antimicrobial consumption. Of the 26 studies included in the review, 23 found significant reductions in antimicrobial use in vaccinated individuals or groups. This evidence indicates that improved coverage with existing vaccines may significantly reduce antimicrobial demand.

Doherty TM, Hausdorff WP, Kristinsson KG. 2020. Effect of vaccination on the use of antimicrobial agents: a systematic literature review. Annals of Medicine. 52(6).

Immunization can reduce child mortality and enhance the immune system’s ability to fight against other diseases

This 2013 review summarizes data from several randomized trials in which measles and tuberculosis vaccines were associated with a substantial reduction in overall child mortality, which cannot be solely explained by prevention of the target disease. These studies suggest that in addition to disease-specific effects, some live vaccines may also provide “nonspecific effects” that enhance the immune system’s ability to protect against additional pathogens.

Benn CS, Netea MG, Selin LK et al.. 2013. A small jab – a big effect: Nonspecific immunomodulation by vaccines. Trends in Immunology. 34(9).

Children in rural-urban migrant populations in China, India, and Nigeria have lower immunization rates, requiring special efforts to improve vaccination rates and reduce health inequities and disease outbreaks

According to a systematic review and meta-analysis, children who are rural-urban migrants in China, India and Nigeria were less likely to be fully-immunized by the age of one year than non-migrant urban residents and the general population. These inequities in vaccination rates — often concealed in national averages — call for special efforts to improve immunization rates in this rapidly growing sub-population to reduce both health inequities and the risk of infectious disease outbreaks in the wider society.

Awoh AB, Plugge E. 2016. Immunisation coverage in rural-urban migrant children in low and middle-income countries (LMICs): a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 70(3).

Antibiotic resistance in pneumococcal infections is common among Indian children

A systematic review of studies from India found that prior to widespread use of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, antibiotic resistance in serious pneumoccocal infections among Indian children has been common. Penicillin resistance was found in 10% of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) cases, while trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance was found in more than 80% of these cases.

Singh, J., Sundaresan, S., Manoharan, A., et al.. 2017. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern in children≤ 5 years with invasive pneumococcal disease in India–A systematic review. Vaccine. 35(35).

Children with sickle cell disease stand to benefit enormously from PCV and Hib immunization

Nearly a quarter of a million children are born with sickle cell disease in Africa each year. Sickle cell disease was found to increase the risk of Hib infections by 13-fold and pneumococcal infections by 36 fold. This means that children with sickle cell disease stand to benefit enormously from PCV and Hib immunization.

Ramakrishnan, M., Moisi, J.C., Klugman, K., et al.. 2010. Increased risk of invasive bacterial infections in African people with sickle-cell disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 10(5).