Population-based surveillance data collected in the state of Tennessee from 1998 – 2016 found that the introduction of PCV13 was associated with reductions in socioeconomic and racial disparities in PCV13-serotype invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). PCV13 introduction was associated with the prevention of IPD in the overall population as well as substantial decreases in racial disparities in IPD over time between Black and White populations. Before PCV13 was introduced, Black people in the study had an IPD incidence 1.5 times higher than White people – 24.7 and 16.4, respectively. After PCV13 introduction, Black people had an IPD incidence 1.15 times the incidence among Whites: 15 and 13.1, respectively.
A school-located influenza vaccination program implemented in 95 preschools and elementary schools in California was associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage, decreased school absences due to illness, and lower influenza transmission across the community. The 11% increase in flu vaccination in children enrolled in target schools was associated with fewer flu hospitalizations in the community, including 160 fewer influenza hospitalizations per 100,000 among people aged 65 and older.
A retrospective analysis of influenza vaccination coverage and antibiotic prescribing rates from 2010 to 2017 across states in the United States, controlling for differences in health infrastructure and yearly vaccine effectiveness, found that a 10-percentage point increase in influenza vaccination coverage was associated with a 6.5% decrease in antibiotic use across all age groups, equivalent to 14.2 fewer antibiotic prescriptions per 1000 individuals.
A study led by researchers from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that across five winter influenza seasons (2013-2018), vaccination against influenza averted 1 in 25 antibiotic prescriptions among outpatients with acute respiratory illness (ARI). The study population included 37,487 ARI outpatients 6 months or older treated at over 50 healthcare facilities across the United States. The authors conclude that influenza vaccination may curb unnecessary antibiotic use and help reduce the global threat of antibiotic resistance.
In response to an increase in pertussis cases beginning in 2010, Brazil introduced dTpa vaccine into the national immunization schedule for pregnant women in 2013. In the pre-maternal vaccination period (2011–2013), the average annual incidence of pertussis hospitalizations in children under 1 year old was 98.3/100,000 and in the post-maternal vaccination period (2015–2017) the average was 65.9/100,000, a decline of 32.9%.
Seizures are the most common non-gastrointestinal symptom associated with rotavirus infection. Studies have found that rotavirus vaccination significantly reduced the risk of childhood seizures during the year following vaccination by approximately 20% for seizures requiring emergency care or hospitalization in the US and by 16-34% for childhood seizures requiring hospitalization in Spain.
More than one-third of children under one year of age in a US study, admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit for critical pertussis had significantly abnormal scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, especially in the area of language development. These children also had a significantly lower mean score for all areas of the test, including cognitive and motor development. This indicates the need for routine neuro-development screening of child survivors of critical pertussis.
The Mullen Scales of Early Learning assesses cognitive and motor development [Gross Motor, Visual Reception, Fine Motor, Expressive Language, and Receptive Language] in children. The Mullen test is generally used for evaluating intellectual development and readiness for school.
A systematic literature review of studies of the long-term effects of invasive meningococcal disease in high-income countries found that children who survived the disease had a greater incidence of hearing loss and psychological problems, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) than control groups or the general population. In addition, they had increased odds of death – one study showed more than a 25% greater mortality rate in this population than did the general public up to 30 years after having the disease.
In a study of school-based influenza vaccination in Los Angeles County, California, children who were vaccinated missed significantly fewer days of school than children who were not (2.8 vs. 4.3 per 100 school days).
School-aged children (5-18 years old) experience the highest attack rates of influenza of any age group and are thus the most important means of spread of infection in the community, making them crucial targets for influenza vaccination. In a study of school-based influenza vaccination in Los Angeles County, California, schools that offered flu vaccine to their students reduced the risk of any child getting the flu by 30% (regardless of vaccination status) compared to schools that did not offer flu vaccine to students.