A school-located influenza vaccination program implemented in 95 preschools and elementary schools in California was associated with increased influenza vaccination coverage, decreased school absences due to illness, and lower influenza transmission across the community. The 11% increase in flu vaccination in children enrolled in target schools was associated with fewer flu hospitalizations in the community, including 160 fewer influenza hospitalizations per 100,000 among people aged 65 and older.
In a cohort study of 4,877 children using data from the India Human Development Survey, full vaccination was estimated to increase basic reading, writing and math achievements by 6-12% in children 8-11 years old. These results support the hypothesis that vaccination has lasting effects on children’s learning achievements.
In an analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults, a subgroup analysis found a strong positive association between UIP implementation and increased school attainment for women. Women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages. Thus, the researchers concluded that the UIP is also likely to improve the economic status of women in India.
An analysis of the impact of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) on schooling attainment in adults found that women born after the UIP rollout attained 0.29 more schooling grades compared women from the same household born before UIP rollout. Among unmarried women, the UIP was associated with an increment of 1.2 schooling years, which corresponds to as much as an INR 35 (US $0.60) increase in daily wages.
Adults who were born after the implementation of India’s Universal Immunization Program (UIP) attained 0.18–0.29 additional grades of schooling compared to adults born before the UIP was implemented in their district of residence. According to the researchers, these findings indicate that childhood immunization could improve adult schooling attainment in India by as much as 10%.
More than one-third of children under one year of age in a US study, admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit for critical pertussis had significantly abnormal scores on the Mullen Scales of Early Learning, especially in the area of language development. These children also had a significantly lower mean score for all areas of the test, including cognitive and motor development. This indicates the need for routine neuro-development screening of child survivors of critical pertussis.
The Mullen Scales of Early Learning assesses cognitive and motor development [Gross Motor, Visual Reception, Fine Motor, Expressive Language, and Receptive Language] in children. The Mullen test is generally used for evaluating intellectual development and readiness for school.
A study of the staggered roll-out of measles vaccination in Matlab, Bangladesh, which started in the early 1980s, found that boys vaccinated before 12 months of age were 7.4% more likely to be enrolled in school than boys who were never vaccinated or vaccinated later in childhood, while measles vaccination had no effect on girls’ enrolment in school.
This may suggest that poor health, resulting from complications of measles that can lead to deficits in physical and cognitive development, affected schooling decisions for boys in Bangladesh, but not for girls.
In a study of school-based influenza vaccination in Los Angeles County, California, children who were vaccinated missed significantly fewer days of school than children who were not (2.8 vs. 4.3 per 100 school days).
School-aged children (5-18 years old) experience the highest attack rates of influenza of any age group and are thus the most important means of spread of infection in the community, making them crucial targets for influenza vaccination. In a study of school-based influenza vaccination in Los Angeles County, California, schools that offered flu vaccine to their students reduced the risk of any child getting the flu by 30% (regardless of vaccination status) compared to schools that did not offer flu vaccine to students.
A review of gut infections and effects on physical growth and development found that for children living in impoverished areas of the world, episodes of diarrhea during the first two years of life not only negatively affected their physical growth, but could result in a 10 points lower IQ than average by age 7.